Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent, entire to crenate lobate; squamules: 1-3 mm wide, 1-5 mm long, esorediate podetia: green to brownish-green, 35-80 mm tall, cup-bearing; cups: 4-8 mm wide, flaring rapidly from podetial support, proliferating from margins, occasionally with proliferations from center surface: corticate, esorediate, occasionally shiny, cortex smooth, continuous to subcontinuous Apothecia: common, up to 7 mm wide, dark brown ascospores: narrowly ovoid, 10-15 x 3-4.5 micro meter Pycnidia: common, on cup margins, ovoid, usually not constricted at base, with hyaline gelatin conidia: 6-7 x 0.5-1 micro meter Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV- Secondary metabolite: fumarprotocetraric acid. Habitat and ecology: on rotting wood and acidic forest floor at high elevations, mainly boreal World distribution: Asia, Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: only known from one location in the Chiricahua Mountains of SE Arizona. Notes: This is a common species of the Canadian boreal forest with a southern outlier in mountains of Arizona. It is distinguished by the constant presence of brownish green, esorediate podetia that are rather large and have wide cups.