Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized or not, lichenicolous when young, persistently lichenicolous or not lichenicolous Thallus: crustose or forming a mycelium in host species in some lichenicolous species, when present usually areolate, more rarely partly endolithic, continuous, cracked, verrucose, or slightly effigurate at the margin, rarely sorediate or isidiate; prothallus: usually present cephalodia: present in one species upper cortex: usually a well developed pseudo-cortex, often containing lichen substances, calcium oxalate or melanins medulla: white or rarely yellow, KI- to KI+ dark violet, often containing lichen substances photobiont: primary one a green, unicellular algae, secondary one absent lower cortex: usually absent but present in a few species with peltate areolae, composed on dense cells, KI+ blue in one species Ascomata: apothecial, attached to the hypothallus, black, slightly concave to strongly convex, marginate when young, later persistently marginate or becoming immarginate; thalline exciple: absent proper exciple: usually well developed, composed of radiating hyphae, with a brownish or greenish black rim and a usually somewhat paler or rarely hyaline inner part, frequently containing crystals of lichen substances epihymenium: dark brown or green, frequently containing crystals of lichen substances hymenium: hyaline or slightly brown or green, KI+ blue; paraphyses: conglutinated, richly branched and anastomosing, with a slightly to distinctly thickened apical cell; hypothecium: medium brown to dark brown, lacking crystals asci: clavate, with a well developed tholus which is non-amyloid in the lower part and amyloid near the apex, lacking an ocular chamber, 1-8spored ascospores: hyaline to dark green or dark brown to black, 1-septate to muriform, +ellipsoid, halonate Conidiomata: pycnidial, known in a few species only, attached to the hypothallus or immersed in the areolae conidia: hyaline, bacilliform to acicular Secondary metabolites: depsides, depsidones, pulvinic acids, or rarely aliphatic acids or no secondary metabolites Geography: cosmopolitan, but predominately temperate/boreal to arctic/alpine Substrate: on rock, mainly non-calcareous, or lichenicolous on saxicolous lichens, rarely on wood. Notes: The amyloid reaction of the medulla is best studied in an acidic ioidine solution (e.g., Lugol's solution with the water substituted by 25% lactic acid) after a few seconds pretreatment in K; this is here denoted the KI-reaction. Rhizocarpon athalloides (Nyl.) Hasse is reported on soil from southern California, but the species does not appear to be a Rhizocarpon; it's proper placement is uncertain at this time.