Immersaria fuliginosa is only known from two locations and its total Area of Occupancy is 8 km2.Livestock grazing, fires, and/or climatic changes could quickly lead to the decline and extirpation of thisspecies. Therefore, it is listed as Vulnerable under criterion D2.
Assessor/s: Fryday, A.; Reviewer/s: Lendemer, J.; Contributor(s): Allen, J. & Scott, T.; Facilitators(s) and Compiler(s): Scott, T. & Allen, J.
Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A.W., de la Torre, J. & Scott, B. (2011) Supporting Red List threatassessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. In: V. Smith & L. Penev (eds) e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. Zookeys150: 117–126.
Fryday, A. M. & Hertel, H. (2014) A contribution to the family Lecideaceae s. lat. (Lecanoromycetidae inc. sed., lichenized Ascomycota) in the southern subpolar region; including eight new species and some revised generic circumscriptions. The Lichenologist46: 389–412.
Fryday, A. M. & Prather, L. A. (2001) The lichen collection of Henry Imshaug at the Michigan State University Herbarium (MSC). The Bryologist104: 464-467.
Fryday, A. M., Orange, A., Ahti, T., Øvstedal, D. O. & Crabtree, D. E. (2019) Checklist of lichenized andlichenicolous fungi reported from the Falkland Islands. GLALIA8(1): 1-100.
IUCN (2020) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).
McAdam, J. (2013) The impact of the Falklands War (1982) on the peatland ecosystem of the islands. Landscape Archaeology and Ecology 10: 143-162.
Stenroos, S. & Ahti, T. 1992. The lichen family Cladoniaceae in the Falkland Islands. Annales Botanici Fennici29(1): 67-73.
Find out more about the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteriahere.
Lichenologist 46(3): 389–412 (2014),
Immersaria fuliginosa Fryday sp. nov.
MycoBank No.: MB805057
Separated from all other species of the genus (and the Lecideaceae) by the presence of thalloconidia.
Type: Falkland Islands, West Falkland, pass SW of Mt. Maria summit, UTM 21F UC 2078 [51°36.630’S, 59°35.910’W], 2000 ft. [610 m], rock outcrops, 28 January 1968, H. A. Imshaug (41296) & R. C. Harris (MSC—holotype; M—isotype).
Thallus consisting of concave to flat, pale to red-brown areoles, 0.1–0.4 mm across, dispersed on a black prothallus that is completely dissolved into thalloconidia; prothallus forming a dark margin to each areole; areoles often larger and forming a e contiguous crust at the thallus margin; upper cortex poorly developed, composed of a diffuse layer of dilute brown pigmented cells, c. 10–20 mm thick; epinecral layer 70–120(–150) mm; medulla I+ violet. Photobiont chlorococcoid, forming a well-defined horizontal layer near the base of the areoles; cells thick-walled, 7– 12 mm diam.
Apothecia infrequent, lecideine, immersed; disc concave, dark brown to black, epruinose, proper margin thin (0.05 mm), slightly raised, poorly developed in section. Hymenium 140– 160 mm tall; paraphyses 1.0–1.5 mm wide, branched and anastomosing, not widening at apex; epihymenium brownish. Asci clavate, 50–60 × 25–30 mm, Porpidia-type; ascospores simple, hyaline, with thin halo, 16–18 × 6–8 mm. Hypothecium brown (K+ golden brown).
Conidia: thalloconidia, blue-black, c. 6 mm diam.
Chemistry. 2’ -O-methylperlatolic and confluentic acids by TLC.
Distribution and ecology. Known from only two collections from mountainous sites on the Falkland Islands. Associated species include Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. aggr., Lecidea sp., Pertusaria spegazzinii Müll. Arg., and Poeltidea perusta (Nyl.) Hertel & Hafellner.