TYPE. BOLIVIA. Dept. Beni, Prov. Ballivian, near Reyes village, 14°18”10’ S, 67°18’”49’ W, 192 m, savanna vegetation, on thallus of Trypethelium ochroleucum, 29.XI.2004, A. Flakus 3724 (KRAM, holotype; LPB, hb. Flakus, isotypes).
Description.Life form: lichenicolous fungus.
[From Flakus & Kukwa 2012] “Conidiomata stromatic, superficial, dispersed to aggregated, black, irregularly convex and subglobose when young, horizontally elongated and strongly flattened (cushionlike) when older, usually constricted below, (30–)45–110 μm diam., 30–80 μm high, not covered by a pellicle-like layer of hyphae, composed of compacted subglobose to ellipsoid, brown cells; individual cells 3.5–7.0 x 3–5 μm, in outermost layer somewhat darker and strongly irregularly verruculose. Conidiophores micronematous, not clearly distinguished from the hyaline, subspherical cells of the central part of the stroma. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, subglobose to subcylindrical, 5.0–7.5 x 4.5–7.0 μm, at first producing apically a few hyaline, small, subspherical cells, which become more numerous and browner, and form conidia. Conidia muriform, regularly globose, 12–16 μm diam., composed of 12–20(–25) densely compacted subglobose, slightly thick-walled cells, outer layer composed of more trapezoidal cells with extended wall faced outward, individual cells 2.5–5.0 μm diam., strongly warted-rugose, partly or fully hyaline or pale brown when young, dark brown when mature.”
[From Ertz et al. 2014] “External cells of stromata with a dark brown mosaic-like ornamentation. Ascomata provisionally referred to this species (30–)38–84(−160) μm diam. (N=56) (Buck 29314), I+ and K/I+ blue; asci 8-spored, c. 25×20 μm; ascospores hyaline, 1-septate, ellipsoid, c. 8.5–13×4.5–6 μm (very few asci and ascospores observed). Conidiomata (20–)31–69(−140) μm diam. (N=316, from 6 specimens including the holotype), I– or pale blue, K/I– or K/I+ pale blue; conidia subspherical, (10.5–)11.8–14.5(−16)×(10–)11.1–14.0(−15) μm, length/width ratio 1.0–1.1, composed of (16–)20–31(−36) verrucose cells [in optical section (11–)12–17(−19) cells] (N=19), cells (2.5–)3.0– 4.0(−4.5) μm diam. (N=94).”
Hosts and habitat. Lichenicolous on various crustose lichens (Graphidaceae, Lecanoraceae, Pertusariaceae and Trypetheliaceae) on trees in tropical and subtropical habitats.
Distribution. Pantropical (South America, South Africa, Papua New Guinea) and subtropical North America (USA: Florida to North Carolina); in North Carolina found in the Coastal Plain ecoregion.
Ertz, D., J.D. Lawrey, R.S. Common & P. Diederich (2014) Molecular data resolve a new order of Arthoniomycetes sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales and composed of black yeasts, lichenicolous and rock-inhabiting species. Fungal Diversity66: 113-137.
Flakus A. & M. Kukwa (2012) New species of lichenicolous fungi from Bolivia. Lichenologist44: 469–477 (original description as Phaeosporobolus trypethelii).