Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, continuous or rimose to verrucose or verruculose, thin or thick, endo- to episubstratal prothallus: absent or brown surface: gray, olive-gray or olive, shiny, not fissured or fissured, vegetative propagules: isidia, soredia and schizodiscs present or absent anatomy: cortex continuous, exfoliating or lacking, sometimes with crystals internally photobiont: trentepohlioid Ascomata: apothecioid, solitary to fused, hemispherical, sessile or immersed, orbicular, elongated, lirelliform or branched with proper exciple and thalline margin disc: pale reddish, brownish or dark gray, with white pruina columella: dark brown to black, mostly pruinose, white, pale brown or pale red, entire and broad or ±reticulate thalline margin: entire or split, concolorous with thallus or eroded and pruinose proper exciple: carbonized, closely adhering to thalline margin, rarely detached apically, lacking lateral paraphyses hypothecium: colorless or brown, rarely carbonized hymenium: hyaline, clear, hymenial gel non-amyloid paraphyses: simple, straight, conglutinated, apically slightly thickened epihymenium: hyaline to yellow, or brown, with gray to brownish granules or egranulose asci: subcylindrical, thick-walled, apex distinctly thickened, not amyloid, Ostropales-type, 1-8-spored ascospores: hyaline or brown, transversally septate or submuriform, subglobose, ellipsoid, oblong, cylindrical or fusiform; cells: usually lenticular, septation mode macrocephalic Pycnidia: immersed, colorless or brown; conidiogenous cells: simple, acrogenous conidia: bacilliform, simple Secondary metabolites: depsidones, xanthones or substances lacking Geography: subcosmopolitan with centers of distribution in the tropics Substrate: on bark, rarely overgrowing bryophytes. Notes: Stegobolus was recently reinstated (Frisch and Kalb 2006) for species previously included in Ocellularia that have complex or broad stump-shaped columella structures, a periderm layer, amyloid ascospores, and a epiphloedal, corcticate thallus.