Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, warted-areolate areoles: isodiametric in outline or irregularly incised, 0.1-0.45 mm in diam., moderately to strongly convex surface: pale grayish green, more rarely dark green or with an ochre or beige tinge, dull, usually sorediate upper cortex: poorly developed, 5-15 µm thick; algal layer: 40-130 µm thick medulla: 20-50 (-100) µm thick, sometimes lacking soralia: irregular in outline, often confluent, usually of same color as esorediate thallus parts or lighter and with pinkish beige tinge, (0.15-)0.4-0.7 mm in diam.; photobiont: 4.5-10 µm in diam. Apothecia: ±flexuose in outline, rarely rounded, sessile with a constricted base or slightly appressed, 0.4-0.95(-1.5) mm in diam disc: very variable in color, pinkish ochre to gray-brown, often with a bluish tinge or khaki, rarely black, dull, epruinose, flat to weakly convex margin: prominent when young, persistent but often ±level with disc in old apothecia, dull exciple: hyaline or grayish brown near margin, grayish or brown within, laterally 30-100 µm wide, basally 40-75 (-120) µm wide, composed of densely entangled, short-celled hyphae with lumina of 1-3 µm in diam.; epihymenium: 10-20 µm high, mostly poorly delimited against hymenium, pale gray, ochre or orange-brown, rarely olive-brown hymenium: pale ochre or hyaline, 50-70 µm tall; paraphyses: hyaline, strongly branched and anastomosing, lumina 1-2 µm, apically 1-2.5 µm wide; subhymenium: 20-65 µm high; hypothecium: hyaline to pale orange brown, 10-75 µm high ascospores: usually more abundant than in T. flexuosa, hyaline, simple, (9-)10.9-13(-15) x (4-)4.6-6.4(-7) µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: thallus K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P-, UV- Secondary metabolites: gyrophoric acid. Substrate and ecology: on rotting or charred wood, conifer bark, and detritus World distribution: more or less cosmopolitan Sonoran distribution: in oak and conifer forests of Arizona and southern California at 1900-3500 Notes: When sterile, the distinction from T. flexuosa can be difficult to recognize. See under that species for distinguishing characters.