Substrate and Habitat. On soil surrounding tree bases as well as on bark and wood, in forests.
Distribution. Gulf and Atlantic coasts of eastern North America, Caribbean (Puerto Rico); in North Carolina in Coastal Plain ecoregion.
Lendemer, J.C. & N. Noell. (2018) Delmarva Lichens: An illustrated manual. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Society28: 1-386.
Tuckerman, E. (1858) Supplement to an enumeration of North American lichens; Part first, containing brief diagnoses of new species. American Journal of Science and Arts25: 422-430 (original description).