This species has an area of occupancy in the range of 164-400 km2, a severely fragmented population estimated to comprise fewer than 500 mature individuals (196-410 mature individuals; maximum subpopulation size comprised of 50 mature individuals), and there are continuing declines in EOO, AOO, number of locations, number of mature individuals and habitat quality inferred or observed across its range. Past and ongoing declines are due largely to logging, development, air pollution, and climate change. These factors likely disproportionately impacted historical occurrences in the Appalachian foothills and adjacent Piedmont, where the species is known from few occurrences. Tentatively, the higher estimate for the area of occupancy is used here, as this incorporates additional potential sites that have so far been unsampled. Thus, it is listed as Endangered under criterion B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) and C2a(i).
Assessor/s: Lendemer, J. ; Reviewer/s: Allen, J.
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