Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: foliose, single lobed attached by a single umbilicus and with 15-39 mm wide lobes or multi-lobed attached by numerous holdfasts and with 6-14 mm wide lobes upper surface: gray, with epinecral layer consisting of air filled hyphae upper cortex: 60-230 µm thick, hyaline with the outermost 10-20 µm brown medulla: 140-480 µm thick, consisting of of filamentous hyphae which are tightly packet together giving a prosoplechtenchyme appearance lower cortex: 80-150 µm thick, with the outermost 10-20 µm brown to dark brown lower surface: brown to dark brown, usually with a reddish tinge, smooth, finely papillose or wrinkled, verrucose or reticulate Perithecia: broadly obpyriform to globose, 330-530 µm high and 190-400 µm wide, with hyaline exciple which is brown in the uppermost part asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: simple, hyaline, (11-)14-18.5(-22.5) µm Pycnidia: common, immersed, ostiolum similiar to that of the perithecium conidia: bacilliform, 5-5.5 x c. 1 µm. Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on rocks of different types such as basalt, red sandstone, limy sandstone or granite, usually in rain seepages or by seasonal creeks, often at shaded localities but can be found in exposed localities facing south World and Sonoran distribution: mainly at higher elevations throughout Arizona, southern California, Baja California, Chihuahua, and Sinaloa. Notes: Dermatocarpon taminium resembles D. miniatum