Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, lichenicolous or not Thallus: squamulose squamules: up to 3 mm diam., adjacent or forming a continuous crust, irregularly lobed, weakly concave to weakly convex upper surface: medium brown to dark brown, epruinose, dull, often with shallow, irregular fissures, lacking pores and pseudocyphellae upper cortex: up to 100 µm high, lacking calcium oxalate margin: concolorous with upper surface Apothecia: up to 1.5 mm diam., plane and marginate when young, later convex and immarginate, epruinose; exciple: dark brown to dark green in the rim, pale brown to colorless in inner part; hypothecium: pale brown to colorless; epithecium: bright to dark green (K-, N+ violet) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: acicular, 3-7-septate, 23-41.5 x 2.5-4.5 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: filiform Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on soil and rock in confer woodlands and forests, at 2150-2950 m World distribution: widely distributed in the temperate and arctic regions of Northern Hemisphere Sonoran distribution: rare in Arizona and Chihuahua.