Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Ecuador
Includes taxa from following child checklists:
Authors: 1,2,3,22Alba Yánez-Ayabaca, 1,4,22Ángel Benítez, 1,2,22Rosa Batallas Molina, 1,5,22Domenica Naranjo, 1,6,22Javier Etayo, 1,7,22María Prieto, 1,4,22Gabriela Cevallos Solórzano, 1,8,22Erika Caicedo, 9Klara Scharnagl, 10Britton McNerlin, 10Santiago Swanson, 7Gregorio Aragón, 7Noelia Fernández-Prado, 7Isabel Martínez, 11Ana Rosa Burgaz, 1,4,7,22Ximena Yadira González, 1,4,22Jorge Déleg, 1,4,22Marlon Vega, 12Pieter van den Boom, 13,14Nicolas Magain, 1,15,22Fredy Nugra, 1,16,22Tania Oña, 17Patricia Jaramillo, 17Justine Villalba-Alemán, 18,19,20,22Bibiana Moncada, 21,22Jesús Hernández, 10Edward Erik Gilbert & *1,2,10,17,22Frank Bungartz

Citation: Yánez-Ayabaca, A. et al. (2023) Lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi of Ecuador, Version #01. Consortium of Lichen Herbaria. Symbiota Checklist, published online at https://lichenportal.org/portal/checklists/checklist.php?clid=1283&pid

Locality: Ecuador

Abstract:

Check out our recent open access publication "Towards a dynamic checklist of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of Ecuador" in The Lichenologist.

1Grupo Ecuatoriano de Liquenología (GEL), Ecuador
2Herbario Nacional del Ecuador (QCNE), Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INABIO), Quito, Ecuador
3Universidad Central de Quito, Ecuador
4Herbario HUTPL, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Apartado postal 11-01-618, Ecuador
5Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
6Navarro Villoslada 16, 38 dcha, 31003 Pamplona, Navarro, Spain
7Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Móstoles, 28933, Spain
8Fungario QCAM, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Av. 12 de octubre 1076 y Roca, Quito, Pichincha 17-01-2184, Ecuador
9University & Jepson Herbaria, University of California - Berkeley, 1001 Valley Life Sciences Building # 2465, Berkeley, California 94720-2465, USA
10Biodiversity Integration Knowledge Center, Arizona State University, PO Box 874108, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4108, USA
11Departamento de Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, 28040, Spain
12Arafura 16, 5691JA, Son, the Netherlands
13Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0338, USA
14Evolution and Conservation Biology, InBioS Research Center, Université de Liège, Sart Tilman B22, Quartier vallée 1, Chemin de la vallée 4, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
15Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador
16Universidad Técnica del Norte, Ibarra, Ecuador
17Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands, Puerto Ayora, Ecuador
18Botanischer Garten, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Straße 6-8, 14195 Berlin, Germany
19Negaunee Integrative Research Center, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
20Biología y Licenciatura en Biología, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Cra. 4 No. 26D-54, Torre de Laboratorios, Herbario, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
21Herbario Nacional de Venezuela, Instituto Experimental Jardín Botánico “Dr. Tobías Lasser”, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venezuela
22Grupo Latinoamericano de Liquenolólogos (GLAL)

*corresponding author: frank.bungartz@asu.edu

Lichen-forming, Liquenicolous and Allied fungi of Ecuador / Líquenes, Hongos Liquenícolas y Hongos Relacionadas del Ecuador:
This checklist is the first comprehensive list of species, subspecies, varieties and forms of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi from all regions of Ecuador: El Oriente – the Ecuador's Amazon region; La Sierra – the high volcanoes of the Ecuadorian Andes and their foothills; La Costa – the Ecuadorian Pacific coast; and Las Galápagos – Ecuador's insular province. The checklists is part of Ecuador's national biodiversity assessment program ‘Biodiversidad Genética del Ecuador’, led by the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad del Ecuador (INABIO) and the Galapagos Lichen Inventory, supported by the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands (CDF) and the Directorate of the Galapagos National Park (DPNG). To built this checklist, we compiled literature records of Ecuadorian lichen biota spanning from the late 19th century to the modern day. Using the biodiversity data management software Symbiota, we also used the tools built into the Consortium of Lichen Herbaria to include records based on specimens available in institutional and personal collections participating in the Consortium. A publication outlining best practices for compiling checklists with Symbiota, using our Ecuador Checklist as an example, is simultaneously published in The Lichenologist, where the first version of this checklist is also made available as a supplement.

Please click here to download the Reference List as a PDF.

This is the version #01 of this checklist, which can be downloaded as PDF here.

Notes: last updated 02 May 2023


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Families: 131
Genera: 513
Species: 2599
Total Taxa: 2610

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* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Xanthoparmelia, source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Pseudocyphellaria aurata, source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 26661 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Usnea, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25673 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 19956 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25510 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Erioderma, source: Suija et al. (2015), Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20143 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Leucodermia leucomelos, Holotype QCA, Etayo 25531, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25531 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Lobariella pallida & Lobariella subexornata, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25623 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25539 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Everniastrum, Holotype QCA, Etayo 25604, source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 26669 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 25587 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 25604 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 19984 [hb. Etayo], more...
[Abrothallus parasiticus (Ach.) Nyl., Abrothallus parmeliarum f. parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Nyl., Abrothallus parmeliarum var. parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Nyl., Abrothallus smithii Tul., Buellia parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Tuck., Buellia smithii (Tul.) Jatta, Buelliella parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink, Endocarpon parasiticum Ach., Lecidea parmeliarum Sommerf., Lecidea parmeliarum f. parmeliarum Sommerf., Parmelia saxatilis f. parasitica (Ach.) Bosch]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Parmotrema & Punctelia rudecta, source: Etayo (2017)
[Leciographa suecica Kirschst.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Ramalina, source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 26407 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 25577 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Teloschistes exilis & Teloschistes flavicans, source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 25578 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25513 [hb. Etayo]
[Buellia lepidophila var. usneae (Rabenh.) H. Olivier, Buellia usneae (Rabenh.) Jatta, Buelliella usneae (Rabenh.) Fink]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Usnea spp., including Usnea bogotensis, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20169 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 20064 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 19973 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 20082 [hb. Etayo], more...
[Graphis albescens Vain.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
[Graphina hololeucoides (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphis hololeucoides Nyl.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007), Nöske & Sipman (1993, 2004)
[Acarospora cinereoalba Fink ex H. Magn., Acarospora superfusca H. Magn.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Knudsen (2012); Aptroot, A. 64834 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10378 [CDS]
[Lecanora obpallens Nyl. ex Hasse]
source: Knudsen et al. (2008); R. C. Harris 17443 [NY], R. C. Harris 17535 [NY]
[Acarospora cervina var. privigna (Ach.) Mudd, Acarospora cervina var. simplex (Taylor) Mudd, Acarospora simplex (Taylor) Jatta nom. illegit., Acarospora simplex var. decipiens (A. Massal.) Jatta, Biatora privigna (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Biatorella privigna (Ach.) Sandst., Biatorella privigna f. privigna (Ach.) Sandst., Biatorella privigna var. privigna (Ach.) Sandst., Biatorella pruinosa var. decipiens Th. Fr. nom. illegit., Biatorella revertens (Tuck.) Herre, Biatorella simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostr., Biatorella simplex f. complicata (Cromb.) Sandst., Biatorella simplex f. goniophila (Flörke) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex f. incrassata (Arnold) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex f. simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostr., Biatorella simplex var. angusta (H. Magn.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. calcifraga (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. chlorocinella (Wedd.) H. Olivier, Biatorella simplex var. crustosa (H. Magn.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. herpes Norman, Biatorella simplex var. hymenogonia (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. incrassata (Arnold) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. major (H. Magn.) Zahlbr., Biatorella simplex var. simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostr., Biatorella simplex var. strepsodina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecanora privigna (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora privigna var. privigna (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora privigna var. revertens Tuck. [synonymy unresolved], Lecanora simplex (Taylor) Nyl., Lecanora simplex f. complicata Cromb., Lecanora simplex f. simplex (Davies) Nyl., Lecidea privigna Ach., Lecidea simplex Taylor, Lecidea simplex var. calcifraga Müll.Arg., Lecidea simplex var. chlorocinella Wedd., Lecidea simplex var. simplex (Davies) Taylor, Polysporina simplex (Taylor) Vězda, Polysporina simplex f. simplex (Davies) Vezda, Polysporina simplex var. crustosa (H. Magn.) N.S. Golubk., Polysporina simplex var. simplex (Davies) Vezda, Psora privigna (Ach.) Flot., Rinodina privigna (Ach.) Gray, Sarcogyne privigna (Ach.) A. Massal., Sarcogyne privigna f. privigna (Ach.) A. Massal., Sarcogyne simplex (Davies) Nyl., Sarcogyne simplex f. complicata (Cromb.) H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex f. goniophila Flörke, Sarcogyne simplex f. incrassata Arnold, Sarcogyne simplex f. lignicola B. de Lesd. ex Meyl., Sarcogyne simplex f. simplex (Davies) Nyl., Sarcogyne simplex subsp. incrassata (Arnold) H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex subsp. simplex (Davies) Nyl., Sarcogyne simplex var. angusta H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. crustosa H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. hymenogonia (Zahlbr.) H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. major H. Magn., Sarcogyne simplex var. simplex (Davies) Nyl.]
source: Knudsen (2012)
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Knudsen (2012); Aptroot, A. 65104 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64801 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64806 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4764 [CDS]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Leptogium cf. vesiculosum, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25625 [hb. Etayo]
[Aderkomyces albostrigosus f. albostrigosus (R. Sant.) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda, Spinomyces albostrigosus (Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, Tricharia albostrigosa R. Sant.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), Lücking & Matzer (2001); E. Asplund 1939-06-27 [S]
[Tricharia cubana Vězda]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Arthonia heterella Stirt., Echinoplaca heterella (Stirt.) R. Sant., Psathyromyces heterellus (Stirt.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, Psathyromyces rosacearum Bat. & Peres, Tricharia heterella (Stirt.) Lücking]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008)
[Tricharia verrucifera Lücking]
Holotype QCNE, Lücking 96-1074, source: Lücking (2008), Lücking (1999); Lücking, R. 96-1074 [INABIOEC-MECN-QCNE], R. Lücking 96-1074 [INABIOEC-MECN-QCNE]
[Marchandiomphalina foliacea (P.M. Jørg.) Diederich, Manfr. Binder & Lawrey, 2007, Omphalina foliacea P.M. Jørg.]
parasitized by Norrlinia peltigericola, Lichenopeltella minuta, and Stigmidium joergensenii, source: Jørgensen (1989), Santesson (1989), Lücking & Moncada (2017); R. C. Harris 16871 [NY]
[Phaeophyscia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Hafellner, Physcia opuntiella Buschardt & Poelt]
[Agonimiella pacifica H. Harada]
[Acarospora fuscata f. tristicula (Nyl.) H. Magn., Acrocordia tristicula (Nyl.) A. Massal., Polyblastia tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold, Sporodictyon tristiculum (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Verrucaria tristicula Nyl.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on dead parts of living lichens); on Parmotrema reticulatum & Peltigera polydactyla, source: Etayo (2017); Aptroot, A. 63136 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63898 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65195 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8186 [CDS], more...
[Agyrium rufum var. pallens Fr., Agyrium rufum var. rufum (Pers.) Fr., Biatora grumosa (Leight.) Walt. Watson, Lecidea grumosa Leight., Stictis rufa Pers., Xylographa parallela f. pallescens Fr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, non-lichenized saprophytic fungus, compare with Xylographa
[Biatora brujeriana (Schaer.) Arnold, Biatora coarctata var. brujeriana (Schaer.) Tuck., Biatora lopadioides Th. Fr., Biatora torellii Anzi, Lecanora coarctata var. brujeriana (Schaer.) Schaer., Lecanora elacista var. brujeriana (Schaer.) A. Massal., Lecidea brujeriana (Schaer.) Nyl., Lecidea brujeriana f. brujeriana (Schaer.) Leight., Lecidea brujeriana f. ochrodes Nyl. ex Stirt., Lecidea brujeriana f. ochroides Nyl. ex A.L. Sm., Lecidea brujeriana var. brujeriana (Schaer.) Leight., Lecidea coarctata var. brujeriana Schaer., Lecidea elacista var. brujeriana (Schaer.) Hepp, Lecidea lopadioides (Th. Fr.) Grummann, Lecidea mooreana Carroll, Lecidea torellii (Anzi) Nyl., Patellaria coarctata var. brujeriana (Schaer.) Trevis., Trapelia brujeriana (Schaer.) M. Choisy, Trapelia mooreana (Carroll) P. James, Trapelia torellii var. torellii (Anzi) Hertel, Zeora coarctata f. brujeriana (Schaer.) Flot., Zeora coarctata var. brujeriana (Schaer.) Arnold]
[Alectoria ochroleuca var. ecuadorensis Zahlbr.]
Type Meyer 301, Chimborazo: Auf dem Erdboden, steril, bei 400 m Seehöhe [Chimborazo: on soil, sterile, at 400 m altitude] ; originally described by Zahlbruckner (1905) as Alectoria ochroleuca var. ecuadorensis Zahlbr. (1905), acccording to Esslinger (2016) chemically similar to A. guatemalana, but with much broader lobes, source: Esslinger (2016), Zahlbruckner (1905)
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
[Lichen jubatus L. nom. rejic., Lichen jubatus var. jubatus L.]
source: Leighton (1966), Cevallos (2012)
[Alectoria ochroleuca f. citrina Räsänen, Alectoria ochroleuca f. tenuior Cromb., Alectoria ochroleuca var. citrina (Räsänen) D. Hawksw., Alectoria ochroleuca var. rigida (Fr.) Th. Fr., Bryopogon ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Bryopogon ochroleucus f. intricatus Gyeln., Bryopogon ochroleucus f. japonicus Gyeln., Bryopogon ochroleucus f. ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Bryopogon ochroleucus var. ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Bryopogon ochroleucus var. rigidus (Fr.) Hazsl., Bryopogon ochroleucus var. tenuior (Cromb.) Gyeln., Bryopogon ochroleucus var. tenulor (Cromb.) Gyeln., Cornicularia ochroleuca (Hoffm.) DC., Cornicularia ochroleuca var. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) DC., Cornicularia ochroleuca var. rigida (Fr.) Schaer., Evernia ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Fr., Evernia ochroleuca var. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Fr., Evernia ochroleuca var. rigida Fr., Parmelia ochroleuca f. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia ochroleuca var. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Ach., Usnea ochroleuca Hoffm.]
[Graphina acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg., Graphis acharii Fée, Graphis rigida f. acharii (Fée) Nyl., Graphis rigida var. acharii (Fée) Kremp., Opegrapha acharii (Fée) Mont.]
[Graphis argentata Lücking & Umaña]
source: Benítez et al. (2019), van den Boom et al. (2022); Benítez, A. 30 [HUTPL]
[Diplographis chlorocarpa (Fée) A. Massal., Graphina chlorocarpa (Fée) Müll.Arg., Graphis frumentaria subsp. chlorocarpa (Fée) Nyl., Graphis frumentaria var. chlorocarpa (Fée) Tuck., Hemithecium chlorocarpum (Fée) Trevis., Ustalia chlorocarpa (Fée) Spreng.]
[Graphina chrysocarpa (Raddi) Müll. Arg., Graphis chrysocarpa (Raddi) Spreng., Opegrapha chrysocarpa Raddi, Phaeographina chrysocarpa (Raddi) Redinger]
[Graphina cleistoblephara (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Graphis cleistoblephara Nyl.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Graphina cleistomma (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphis cleistomma Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Spielmann, A.A. 10624 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65636 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4023 [CDS], Spielmann, A.A. 10633 [CDS], more...
[Graphis farinulenta Müll.Arg.]
source: Déleg et al. (2021)
[Allographa apoda (Eschw.) Lücking & Kalb, Graphina illinata (Eschw.) M. Wirth & Hale, Graphis apoda (Zahlbr.) Lücking, Graphis illinata Eschw., Graphis illinata var. apoda Zahlbr., Graphis illinata var. illinata Eschw.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Moncada, B. 8467 [CDS]
[Graphis angustata var. ingarum Vain., Graphis ingarum (Vain.) Lücking]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022; as A. cf. ingarum)
[Graphis isidiata (Hale) Lücking, Thelotrema isidiatum Hale]
source: Kalb & Schumm (2021)
[Graphis leptospora Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 7818 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7073 [CDS]
[Graphis lumbricina Vain.]
source: Staiger (2022; as G. cf. lumbricina, Cevallos (2012)
[Graphina macella (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Graphis macella Kremp.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022); Dal-Forno, M. 1168 [CDS]
[Graphis mexicana (Hale) Lumbsch, Lücking & Kalb, Thelotrema mexicanum Hale]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), Lücking (2015), van den Boom et al. (2022); W. R. Buck 39336 [NY]
[Graphis miniata Redinger]
source: Déleg et al. (2021)
[Graphina nuda Magn.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Graphis subchrysocarpa Lücking, Phaeographis ochracea C.W. Dodge]
source: Bungartz et al. (2010); Bungartz, F. 5798 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5812 [CDS]
[Graphis pedunculata Bungartz & Aptroot]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 5701 [CDS 28799], source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Bungartz, F. 4801 A [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65686 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4701 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65665 [CDS]
[Graphina plurispora (Redinger) M. Wirth & Hale, Graphina pseudosophistica var. plurispora Redinger, Graphis plurispora (Redinger) Lücking & Chaves]
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
[Graphis assimilis Nyl., Graphis assimilis f. assimilis Nyl., Graphis rhizicola (Fée) Lücking & Chaves, Graphis scripta var. assimilis Tuck. nom. illegit., Opegrapha rhizicola Fée]
source: Nöske et al. (2007), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Graphina rufopallida (Vain.) Zahlbr., Graphis rufopallida Vain.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Graphina ruiziana (Fée) Müll.Arg., Graphina ruiziana var. anomala (Leight.) Zahlbr., Graphina ruiziana var. ruiziana (Fée) Müll.Arg., Graphina ruiziana var. terricola Redinger, Graphis ruiziana (Fée) A. Massal., Opegrapha anomala Leight., Opegrapha ruiziana Fée, Stenographa anomala (Leight.) Mudd, Stenographa ruiziana (Fée) Arnold]
source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016), van den Boom et al. (2022); Benítez, A. 194 [HUTPL], Benítez, A. 192 [HUTPL], Benítez, A. 195 [HUTPL], Benítez, A. 193 [HUTPL]
[Graphina scaphella (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Graphis scaphella var. scaphella (Ach.) Spreng., Opegrapha scaphella Fée]
source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016)
[Graphis albida Vain., Graphis sitiana Vain., Phaeographis albida (Vain.) Zahlbr.]
parasitized by Enterographa epigraphis, source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016), Etayo (2017); Benítez, A. 197 [HUTPL]
[Graphis striatula (Ach.) Sprengel, Graphis striatula var. sublaevis Nyl., Hysterium striatulum (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha striatula Ach.]
source: Benítez et al. (2015; as Graphis aff. striatula)
[Graphina triphora (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphis triphora Nyl.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Graphina vestitoides Fink, Graphis vestitoides (Fink) Staiger]
[Graphis xanthospora Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Dal-Forno, M. 1163 [CDS]
[Opegrapha betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. conferta Erichsen, Opegrapha betulina var. herbarum (Mont.) Redinger, Opegrapha culmigena Lib., Opegrapha herbarum Mont., Opegrapha prosodeoides Vain., Opegrapha turneri Leight.]
[Alyxoria diaphora (Ach.) Gray, Alyxoria notha (Ach.) Gray, Graphis notha (Ach.) Trevis., Graphis varia (Pers.) Branth & Rostr., Lichen nothus Ach., Lichen signatus Ach., Opegrapha chlorina Pers., Opegrapha diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. herbicola Nyl., Opegrapha diaphora f. signata (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora f. tigrina (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. mexicana B. de Lesd. ex Ruiz{?}, Opegrapha diaphora var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. stellata Sántha, Opegrapha diaphora var. tigrina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. tridens (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. cerebrina (Erichsen) J. Nowak, Opegrapha lichenoides f. chlorina (Pers.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides f. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. octomera Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides f. populina (Moug.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha lichenoides var. cerebrina Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. chlorina (Pers.) Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides var. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides var. populina (Moug.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. subchondrina Redinger, Opegrapha notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. populina Moug., Opegrapha notha var. spaniota Ach., Opegrapha pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrader, Opegrapha pulicaris f. lutescens (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha pulicaris f. minuta (Chevall.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. phaea (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pollinii (A. Massal.) Redinger, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrad., Opegrapha rimalis Pers. ex Ach., Opegrapha rimalis var. betulina H. Olivier, Opegrapha rimalis var. rimalis Ach., Opegrapha signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. beta Ach., Opegrapha signata var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. tigrina Ach., Opegrapha tridens Ach., Opegrapha varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. pulicaris, Opegrapha varia f. varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. xanthocarpa Zwackh, Opegrapha varia var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha varia var. diaphora (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. glomerulans Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. heterocarpa Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. lichenoides (Pers.) Hepp, Opegrapha varia var. notha (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. phaea (Ach.) Rabenh., Opegrapha varia var. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. rimalis (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. varia, Scaphis notha (Ach.) Eschw.]
[Buellia brugierae Vain.]
source: Marbach (2000); K. Kalb 18542 [WIS]
[Buellia efflorescens Müll.Arg., Buellia efflorescens var. diminutiva (Vain.) Imshaug, Buellia efflorescens var. efflorescens Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9135 [CDS]
[Buellia extenuata Müll.Arg.]
source: Marbach (2000); K. Kalb 18106 [WIS], K. Kalb 18105 [WIS]
Holotype WIS, Kalb & Kalb 18665, source: Marbach (2000)
[Abrothallus thallophilus (Ohlert) Arnold, Amandinea myriocarpa (DC.) M. Choisy nom. inval., Buellia myriocarpa (DC.) Mudd, Buellia myriocarpa f. areolata (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. depauperata (Anzi) Walt. Watson, Buellia myriocarpa f. ecrustacea (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. leprosa (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia myriocarpa f. opegraphina (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. punctata (Hoffm.) Boistel, Buellia myriocarpa var. myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia ocellata f. depauperata Anzi, Buellia praecavenda (Nyl. ex Cromb.) Arnold, Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) Mass., Buellia punctata f. areolata (Leight.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. depauperata (Anzi) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. ecrustacea (Leight.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univers. 7: 396 (1931), Buellia punctata f. leprosa (Leight.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. opegraphina (Leight.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia punctata var. punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia punctiformis f. depauperata (Anzi) Szatala nom. inval., Buellia punctiformis f. depauperata (Anzi) Arnold, Buellia punctiformis f. punctata (Hoffm.) Vain., Buellia punctiformis var. myriocarpa (DC.) Arnold, Buellia punctiformis var. punctata (Hoffm.) Lynge, Buellia stigmatea f. depauperata Anzi, Buellia verruculosa f. depauperata (Anzi) Zahlbr., Catocarpus myriocarpus (DC.) Hasse, Catocarpus myriocarpus f. ecrustaceus (Leight.) Hasse, Karschia myriocarpa (DC.) Sacc. & Traverso, Karschia myriocarpa var. myriocarpa (DC.) Sacc. & Traverso, Karschia thalloides sensu auct. brit. (as '(Hepp) Rehm'), Karschia thallophila (Ohlert) Rehm, Lecidea aequata var. depauperata (Anzi) Stizenb., Lecidea disciformis var. myriocarpa (DC.) Nyl., Lecidea myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl., Lecidea myriocarpa f. areolata Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. ecrustacea Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. leprosa Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl., Lecidea myriocarpa f. opegraphina Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. punctata (Hoffm.) Vain., Lecidea parasema f. myriocarpa (DC.) Ach., Lecidea parasema f. punctata (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea parasema var. myriocarpa (DC.) Ach., Lecidea parasema var. punctata (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea praecavenda Nyl. ex Cromb., Lecidea punctata (Hoffm.) Flörke, Lecidea punctata var. punctata (Hoffm.) Flörke, Lecidea thallophila (Ohlert) Ohlert, Lecidella thallophila Ohlert, Lichen myriocarpus (DC.) Lam., Patellaria myriocarpa DC., Patellaria parasema var. myriocarpa (DC.) Duby, Patellaria parasema var. punctata (Hoffm.) Duby, Rinodina aequata f. depauperata (Anzi) H. Olivier, Verrucaria punctata Hoffm., Verrucaria punctata var. punctata Hoffm.]
source: Castillo-Monroy et al. (2016; as Buellia aff. punctata)
[Buellia disciformis var. subduplicata Vain., Buellia subduplicata (Vain.) Kalb]
source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016); Benítez, A. 90 [HUTPL], Benítez, A. 89 [HUTPL]
[Buellia xylographella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecidea xylographella Nyl.]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 63024 [CDS]
[Stirtonia sprucei R. Sant.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008); Lücking, R. 96-935 [QCAM]
[Ocellularia amplior (Nyl.) Redinger, Ocellularia cavata var. amplior (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Thelotrema cavatum var. amplius Nyl.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007), Nöske & Sipman (2004)
[Anaptychia leucomelos var. latifolia (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Parmelia leucomelos var. latifolia (Nyl.) Jatta nom. illegit., Physcia leucomelos var. latifolia Nyl.]
problematic, name not resolved, no modern record, source: Návas (1908; as Anaptychia leucomelos var. latifolia)
[Anaptychia 'leucomelaena' (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelaena (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelaena f. leucomelaena, Anaptychia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Borrera leucomelos (L.) Ach., Hagenia leucomelos (L.) Schwend., Heterodermia leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelaena f. leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelaena subsp. leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelaena var. leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos subsp. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Leucodermia leucomelos (L.) Kalb, Lichen leucomelos L., Lobaria leucomelos (L.) Raeusch., Parmelia leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Eschw., Physcia leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Tuck., Teloschistes leucomelos (L.) A. Schneid., Xanthoria leucomelos (L.) Horw.]
[Anaptychia atrosetigera var. angustifolia (Meyen & Flot.) Kremp., Parmelia leucomelos var. angustifolia Meyen & Flot., Physcia angustifolia (Meyen & Flot.) Nyl.]
problematic, name not resolved, no modern record, source: Müller (1879; as Physcia leucomelos var. angustifolia), Návas (1908, as Physcia leucomelos var. angustifolia)
[Parmelia leucomelos f multifida Meyen & Flot.]
problematic, name not resolved, only one more record by Asplund, E. 83 [MSC] is more recent than the reports by Zahlbruckner (1905, 1907), source: Zahlbruckner (1905, 1907); Asplund, E 83 [MSC]
[Ditremis albiseda (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria viridiseda f. albiseda Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1987); Aptroot, A. 63017 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3646 [CDS]
[Anisomeridium feeanum (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris, Arthopyrenia anisoloba Müll.Arg., Ditremis anisoloba (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris]
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
[Acrocordia biformis (Borrer) Arnold, Acrocordia conformis (Nyl.) Hellb., Amphisphaeria biformis (Borrer) Rehm, Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia biformis f. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis f. microcarpa Erichsen, Arthopyrenia biformis var. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis var. macrocarpa (Körb.) Keissl., Arthopyrenia byssacea (Taylor) A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. rhypontoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia parvula Zahlbr., Ditremis biformis (Borrer) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea biformis (Borrer) Trevis., Pharcidia thallophila (Cooke) Vouaux, Sagedia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Segestrella biformis (Borrer) Branth & Rostr., Sphaerella thallophila (Cooke) Cooke, Sphaeria thallophila Cooke, Thelidium biformis (Borrer) Mudd, Trimmatothele umbellulariae Herre, Verrucaria biformis Borrer, Verrucaria byssacea Taylor, Verrucaria conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. rhypontoides Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1978); Bungartz, F. 4233 A [CDS]
[Arthopyrenia adnexa var. leptosperma Zahlbr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1995); Aptroot, A. 65049 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4076 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4150 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65078 [CDS], more...
[Anisomeridium juistense (Erichsen) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium willeyanum (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris, Apiospora polypori Ellis & Everh., Arthopyrenia willeyana R.C. Harris, Ditremis nyssogena [as 'nyssaegena'] (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris 1990, Paraphysothele juistensis (Erichsen) Servít, Thelidium juistense Erichsen, Zignoëlla nyssogena Ellis & Everh.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Peltigera, source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 26680 [hb. Etayo]
[Arthopyrenia subprostans (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Ditremis subprostans (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea subprostans (Nyl.) Trevis., Pyrenula subprostans (Nyl.) Tuck., Verrucaria subprostans Nyl.]
[Ditremis tamarindi (Fée) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea tamarindi (Fée) Trevis., Porina tamarindi (Fée) Müll.Arg., Verrucaria tamarindi Fée]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1980); Aptroot, A. 63049 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65066 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9524 [CDS], Miranda, R. 969 [CDS]
[Arthopyrenia truncata Müll.Arg., Leiophloea truncata (Müll. Arg.) Riedl]
[Anisomeridium tuckeri R.C. Harris, Ditremis tuckerae (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, original spelling as A. tuckeri is incorrect; species named after S.C. Tucker, correct spelling therefore: A. tuckerae, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998); Bungartz, F. 9816 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63070 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3801 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64378 [CDS], more...
[Graphina aggregans (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Graphis aggregans Nyl.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
Holotype B, Sipman 52804, source: Lumbsch et al. (2011)
source: Beítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016); Benítez, A. 91 [HUTPL]
[Acrorixis prasina (Eschw.) Trevis., Trypethelium pallidum C. Knight, Verrucaria prasina Eschw.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); A. Aptroot 11209 [NY]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007)
[Parmelia dictyorhiza Massee]
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
[Thelenella terricola Aptroot]
source: Déleg et al. (2021)
[Gabura insignis (P.M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Magain & Sérus., Leptogium insigne P.M. Jørg. & Tønsberg]
source: Jørgensen & Palice (2016)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Hypotrachyna caraccensis, source: Etayo (2017; as Arctomia cf. interfixa); Etayo, J. 20017 [hb. Etayo]
[Arthoniopsis aciniformis (Stirt.) Müll. Arg.]
source: Lücking & Matzer (2001), Lücking (1999, 2008); Lücking, R. 96-941 [QCAM]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Catenata antillarum (Fée) Bat., Coniocarpon antillarum Fée]
preliminary identification, source: Benítez (2016), Benítez et al. (2019; as Arthonia aff. antillarum and Arthonia antillarum); Bungartz, F. 3390 [CDS], Clerc, P. 08-226 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64409 A [CDS], Clerc, P. 08-233 [CDS], more...
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Sticta weigelii, Holotype QCA, Etayo 17324, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20013 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 17324 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 17326 [hb. Etayo]
[Coniocarpon confertum Fée]
preliminary identification, source: Benítez et al. (2019; as Arthonia aff. conferta)
[Arthoniopsis cyanea (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), van den Boom et al. (2022); Bungartz, F. 7080 A [CDS], Lücking, R. 96-764 [QCAM], Lücking, R. 96-465 [QCAM]
problematic, name not resolved; only known from the type; Holotype BRIST [colln Darbishire], Hill Jun. 1872, source: Follmann & Werner (2003)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Sticta wegelii, Sticta sp. & Sticta cf. filix, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20054 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25865 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25379 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 20003 [hb. Etayo], more...
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Physica, source: Etayo (2017), van den Boom et al. (2022); Etayo, J. 27038 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Leprocaulon grascilescens & Leprocaulon sp., source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 27017 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Roccella, source: Diedrich (1995), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Etayo (2017)
[Biatorina epiphorbia (Stirt.) Arnold, Celidium fuscopurpureum Tul., Karschia epiphorbia (Leight.) Zopf, Lecidea epiphorbia Leight., Scutula fuscopurpurea (Tul.) Rehm]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Peltigera, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20181 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Placopsis sp., source: Etayo (2017); K. Kalb 19256 [WIS], J. Etayo 26305 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 19925 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Heterodermia comosa and Leucodermia leucomelos, Holotype QCA, Etayo 20092, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20092 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25903 [hb. Etayo]
[Arthothelium ilicinum (Taylor) P. James, Arthothelium ilicinum var. ilicinum (Taylor) P. James]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske (2005; as A. cf. ilicina), Nöske et al. (2007)
[Arthoniopsis leptosperma Müll. Arg., Conidomyces leptospermus (Müll. Arg.) Bat., Merarthonis leptosperma (Müll. Arg.) Clem.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Lobariella pallida, Holotype COL, Etayo 15916, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25617 [hb. Etayo]
[Bryostigma molendoi (Heufl. ex Arnold) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, Conida clemens f. molendoi (Heufl. ex Arnold) Arnold, Tichothecium molendoi Heufl. ex Arnold]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Caloplaca, source: Etayo (2017)
preliminary identification, Weber (1986) doubts this determination, source: Wiley (1890), Weber (1986)
[Arthonia opegraphina Lücking nom. illegit., Opegrapha orbignyae H.B.P. Upadhyay]
source: Lücking (1999; as Arthonia opegraphina Lücking nom. illegit.), Lücking (2008)
[Arthoniopsis palmulacea Müll.Arg., Eremothecella palmulacea (Müll.Arg.) Serus.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008); Lücking, R. 96-942 [QCAM]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: Galapagos specimens identified as A. antillarum and A. parantillarum appear to have a chemistry not identical to what has been reported for these two species; the groups requires more research, source: Aptroot (2003); Bungartz, F. 3383 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6341 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6143 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64383 [CDS], more...
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Phaeophyscia cf. orbicularis, source: Etayo (2017), van den Boom et al. (2022); Etayo, J. 25441 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25478 [hb. Etayo]
problematic, name not resolved, no modern record, source: Nylander (1863)
preliminary identification, Weber (1986) erroneously reports the species as endemic, even though the protologue in Nylander (1863, p. 480, footnote no. 1) cites a specimen from Mexico near Tampico, collected on Rhiozophora mangle by Uzac, which must be considered the type. Zahlbruckner, A. Catalogus Lichenum Universalis 2: 75 (1923–1924) further reports the from the Antilles, Mexico, and Florida; Galapagos material is possibly identical with either Arthonia antillarum or A. parantillarum (FH 197370, 197374, 197375, 197380); Galapagos: Hassler Expedition (Willey 1890); Gardner: Snodgrass & Heller (Farlow 1902); check fluorescence, both A. antillarum and A. parantillarum are younger names and depending on UV reaction might have to be reduced to synonymy, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), Nylander (1863), Stewart (1912), Weber (1966, 1981, 1986)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Mazosia rubropunctata, source: Lücking (1999), Etayo (2017); Lücking, R. 96-929 [QCAM]
[Graphis rubella Fée]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Arthothelium sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr.]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 64733 [CDS]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Arthonia nephromiaria var. stereocaulina Ohlert]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Stereocaulon, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 27008 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Pyrenula pyrenuloides, source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Heterodermia sp., source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20096 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 25333 [hb. Etayo]
[Arthoniopsis trilocularis (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008); Lücking, R. 96-940 [QCAM]
[Arthopyrenia crombiei A.L. Sm., Endophis cerasi (Schrad.) Norman, Metasphaeria cerasi (Schrad.) Vain., Opegrapha cerasi (Schrad.) Flörke, Pseudosagedia cerasi (Schrad.) M. Choisy, Pyrenula cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Spermatodium cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Verrucaria cerasi Schrad.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Massal (1852); Aptroot, A. 65052 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65061 B [CDS]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Tricharia planicarpa Lücking]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008)
[Echinoplaca tricharioides Kalb & Vězda]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008)
endemic to Galapagos, Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Santa Cruz, Academy Bay about 0.5 mi E of Darwin Station, on rock, 20-Feb-1964, Weber, W.A. s.n. (B–22064 – holotype designated by Huneck & Follmann 1969; COLO 185868 (L-39131) – isotype!; further isotypes also distributed as Weber, Lich. Exs. [Boulder (Colorado)] no. 113), source: Huneck & Follmann (1969), Weber (1981, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998); Bungartz, F. 6410 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1707 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7034 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7431 [CDS], more...
[Arthrorhaphis citrinella var. alpina (Schaer.) Poelt, Bacidia alpina (Schaer.) Vain., Bacidia citrinella subsp. alpina (Schaer.) J.R. Laundon, Bacidia flavovirescens var. alpina (Schaer.) A.L. Sm., Lecidea flavovirescens var. alpina Schaer.]
source: González et al. (2017a, b), van den Boom et al. (2022); Aptroot, A. 63653 [CDS], Etayo, J. 25664 [hb. Etayo], Palice, Z. 2565 [QCAM]
[Arthrorhaphis flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Th. Fr., Bacidia citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Bacidia citrinella subsp. citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Bacidia citrinella var. alpina (Schaer.) Boistel, Bacidia citrinella var. arenicola (Nyl.) Poelt, Bacidia flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Anzi, Bacidia flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Dicks.) Anzi, Catolechia flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Flot., Lecanactis citrinella (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecidea citrinella (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea citrinella f. citrinella (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea flavovirescens Borrer nom. illegit., Lecidea flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Dicks.) Borrer, Lichen citrinellus Ach., Mycobacidia citrinella (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Mycobacidia flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Rehm, Pragmopora flavovirescens (A. Massal.) J. Schröt., Raphiospora flavovirescens A. Massal., Scoliciosporum flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Jatta, Secoliga flavovirescens (A. Massal.) Stizenb., Skolekites citrinellus (Ach.) Norman]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Phyllobaeis imbricata, Holotype PRA, Palice 4536, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20051 [hb. Etayo]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9672 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65327 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65316 [CDS]
[Phylloporina macrospora Müll.Arg., Porina macrospora (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill.]
source: Lücking (2008), van den Boom et al. (2022)
Holotype QCA, Lücking 96-316, source: Lücking (1999, 2008)
[Thelenella trichothelioides (Sérus. & Vězda) R.C. Harris]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008); Lücking, R. 96-1095 [QCAM]
[Chapsa platycarpa (Tuck.) Frisch, Phaeotrema platycarpum (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Thelotrema platycarpum Tuck.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), van den Boom et al. (2022); Lücking, R. 96-1207 [QCAM]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), van den Boom et al. (2022); Lücking, R. 96-301 [QCAM]
[Mazosia leucophthalma (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Platygrapha leucophthalma Müll. Arg., Rotula leucophthalma (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.]
source: Lücking (1999; as Asterothyrium cf. microsporum), Lücking (2008); Lücking, R. 96-111 [QCAM], Lücking, R. 96-300 [QCAM]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008)
[Strigula umbilicata Müll.Arg.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008)
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Pleurotrema acrophaeum (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris, Trypethelium acrophaeum Nyl.]
[Pseudopyrenula aenea (Eschw.) Vain., Pseudopyrenula heterochroa (Mont.) Vain., Pyrenula heterochroa (Mont.) Trevis., Segestria heterochroa (Mont.) Trevis., Spermatodium croceum Trevis., Trypethelium aeneum (Eschw.) Zahlbr., Verrucaria heterochroa Mont.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007), Aptroot et al. (2016), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Aptroot, A. 64905 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8404 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65605 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64774 [CDS], more...
[Pseudopyrenula annularis (Fée) Müll. Arg., Pseudopyrenula myriomma (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Pyrenula annularis Fée, Trypethelium annulare Mont., Trypethelium exasperatum (Zenker) Zahlbr., Verrucaria annularis (Fée) Spreng., Verrucaria exasperata Zenker, Verrucaria myriomma Nyl.]
parasitized by Paragyalideopsis minuta, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20154 [hb. Etayo]
Holotype ABL, Aptroot 10452, source: Aptroot et al. (2016)
[Astrothelium clandestinum (Fée) Nyl., Astrothelium confusum Müll.Arg., Polyblastia clandestina (Fée) Trevis., Pyrenastrum clandestinum (Fée) Müll.Arg., Pyrenodium crassum (Fée) Fée, Trypethelium clandestinum Fée, Trypethelium crassum Fée, Trypethelium crassum var. crassum Fée]
Holotype B, Sipman 52318, source: Aptroot et al. (2016)
[Astrothelium acroleucum Malme, Pyrenastrum eustomum Mont.]
[Bathelium feei (C.F.W. Meissn.) Aptroot, Trypethelium feei C.F.W. Meissn., Trypethelium mastoideum var. macerum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium scoria var. feei (C.F.W. Meissn.) Trevis.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Aptroot et al. (2016); Aptroot, A. 63754 [CDS], Herrera-Campos, M.A. 10805 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64241 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64713 [CDS], more...
Holotype hb. Aptroot, Aptroot 10452, source: Aptroot et al. (2016)
source: Aptroot et al. (2016)
Holotype B, Sipman 52934, source: Aptroot et al. (2016)
Holotype B, Sipman 52318a, source: Aptroot et al. (2016)
[Astrothelium conicum var. pallidum Müll. Arg., Astrothelium galbineum Krempelh., Astrothelium hypoxylon var. macrocarpum (Fée) Nyl., Astrothelium ochrothelioides Vain., Astrothelium ochrothelizum Müll.Arg., Astrothelium sulphureum var. macrocarpum (Fée) Nyl., Porina macrocarpa Fée, Porophora macrocarpa (Fée) Spreng., Pyrenula macrocarpa A. Massal., Trypethelium discolor Müll.Arg., Trypethelium ochrothelizum (Müll. Arg.) Nyl.]
source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), van den Boom et al. (2022); Benítez, A. 385 [HUTPL], Benítez, A. 388 [HUTPL], Benítez, A. 386 [HUTPL], Benítez, A. 387 [HUTPL]
[Pseudopyrenula neglecta Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula nitidiuscula (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium catervarium auct., Trypethelium catervarium var. catervarium (Fée) Tuck., Trypethelium nitidiusculum (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria nitidiuscula Nyl.]
[Bathelium duplex (Fée) C.W. Dodge, Bathelium subalbens (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge, Melanotheca duplex (Fée) Müll. Arg., Phyllopyrenia tessellata C.W. Dodge, Pseudopyrenula catervaria (Fée) Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula duplex (Fée) Vain., Pseudopyrenula ochroleuca (Eschw.) Vain., Pseudopyrenula tessella (Pers.) P.W. Graff, Pyrenula catervaria (Fée) A. Massal., Spermatodium catervarium (Fée) Trevis., Spermatodium ochroleucum (Eschw.) Trevis., Trypethelium cascarillae Müll.Arg., Trypethelium duplex Fée, Trypethelium duplex f. duplex Fée, Trypethelium euporum Kremp., Trypethelium leprieurii Mont., Trypethelium leprosum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. depauperatum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. pallescens (Fée) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium pallescens Fée, Trypethelium phlyctaena Fée, Trypethelium quassiicola Fée, Trypethelium subalbens Nyl., Trypethelium triplex Nyl., Verrucaria catervaria Fée, Verrucaria decolorata Fée, Verrucaria ochroleuca Eschw., Verrucaria tessellata (C.W.Dodge) Øvstedal]
Holotype hb. Etayo, Palice 20154, source: Aptroot et al. (2016)
[Pseudopyrenula annularis var. tuberculosa Vain., Trypethelium crassum var. tuberculosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Trypethelium tuberculosum (Vain.) R.C. Harris]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: thallus reacts K+ yellow, slowly orange red; according to Aptroot & Lücking (2016) this reaction is probably not caused by secondary metabolites; the Galapagos specimens still need to be analyzed by TLC, source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Aptroot & Lücking (2016); Aptroot, A. 64663 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8783 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63139 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8785 [CDS], more...
[Bathelium papillosum (Ach.) C.W. Dodge, Trypethelium papillosum var. fuscum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium variolosum Ach.]
source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Harris (1995), Nöske et al. (2007), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Bungartz, F. 5815 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4443 [CDS]
[Caloplaca cerinelloides (Erichsen) Poelt, Caloplaca pyracea f. cerinelloides Erichsen]
source: Kalb & Aptroot (2017), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Corticium bisporum (J. Schröt.) Bourdot & Galzin, Hypochnus bisporus J. Schröt.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Lobariella subexornata, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20162 [hb. Etayo]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), van den Boom et al. (2022); Lücking, R. 96-909 [QCAM]
[Bacidia microphana (Vain.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia microphana Vain.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), van den Boom et al. (2022); Robert Lücking 96-1107 [INABIOEC-MECN-QCNE], Lücking, R. 96-913 [QCAM]
[Aulaxinella minuta (R. Sant.) XavierLeite, M. Cáceres & Lücking]
source: Lücking (1999), Lücking & Matzer (2001), Lücking (2008); Lücking, R. 96-424 [QCAM], Lücking, R. 96-906 [QCAM]
[Aulaxinella multiseptata (R. Sant.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Abrothallus moorei Linds., Lecidea cetrariicola Linds., Lecidea cladoniaria Nyl., Lecidea punctum (A. Massal.) Jatta, Nesolechia cetrariicola (Linds.) Arnold, Nesolechia cladoniaria (Nyl.) Zopf, Nesolechia punctum A. Massal., Phaeopyxis punctum (A. Massal.) Rambold, Triebel & Coppins]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Cladonia sp., source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Sticta spp. & Sticta fuliginosa, source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 25562 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 20105 [hb. Etayo]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Haematomma campaleum (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Lecanora campalea Tuck.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Bacidia caloosensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Biatora caloosensis Tuck., Bilimbia acclinis (Flot.) Trevis.]
native, questionably endem., Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Floreana, Post Office Bay, ad cortices laeves, sine datum, Herre, A.W.C.T. 3155 [W–lectotype selected by Ekman 1996; COLO 183424 (S-10354) – isotype!; also distributed as Keissler, Krypt. Exs. [Wien (Vienna)]: Kryptogamae Exsiccatae Editae A Museo Palatino Vindobonensi no. 3155]; originally described from the Galapagos, but questionably endemic since Fernández-Prado et al. (2022) report it as Bacidia cf. insularis from the continent, source: Weber (1966, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Ekman (1996), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022; as Bacidia cf. insularis); Bungartz, F. 7979 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7359 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4486 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1986 [CDS], more...
[Bacidia atrogrisea (Hepp) Körb., Bacidia atrogrisea var. atrogrisea (Hepp) Körb., Bacidia endoleuca (Nyl.) Kickx., Bacidia endoleuca f. atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Erichsen, Bacidia endoleuca f. coalescens Erichsen, Bacidia endoleuca f. endoleuca (Nyl.) J.J. Kickx, Bacidia endoleuca var. endoleuca (Nyl.) J.J. Kickx, Bacidia endoleuca var. incarnata Erichsen, Bacidia subacerina subsp. laurocerasi (Duby) Vain., Bacidia subacerina var. laurocerasi Fr., Biatora atrogrisea Delise ex Hepp, Biatora luteola f. endoleuca Nyl., Lecidea atrogrisea (Hepp) Linds., Lecidea endoleuca (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Nyl., Patellaria atrogrisea (Hepp) Müll.Arg., Patellaria endoleuca (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Patellaria laurocerasi Delise ex Duby, Secoliga atrogrisea (Hepp) Stizenb.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Biatora luteola var. millegrana (Taylor) Tuck., Lecanora millegrana Taylor, Lecidea millegrana (Taylor) Nyl., Lecidea millegrana var. millegrana (Taylor) Nyl., Patellaria millegrana (Taylor) Müll. Arg., Patellaria millegrana var. millegrana (Taylor) Müll. Arg.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Bacidia acerina (Ach.) Arnold, Bacidia acerina var. acerina (Ach.) Arnold, Bacidia fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Arn., Bacidia fuscorubella f. fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch, Bacidia fuscorubella f. polychroa Th. Fr., Bacidia luteola var. acerina Ach., Bacidia polysita (Stirt.) A.L. Sm., Biatora fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Tuck., Biatora polychroa Th. Fr., Lecidea fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Röhl., Lecidea polysita Stirt., Lecidea spadicea Ach., Secoliga acerina (Ach.) Stizenb., Secoliga fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Stizenb., Toninia polysita (Stirt.) H. Olivier, Verrucaria fuscorubella Hoffm.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Bacidia luteola (Schrad.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola f. areolata Oxner, Bacidia luteola f. conspondens Zahlbr., Bacidia luteola f. luteola (Ach.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola f. porriginosa (Turner) Oxner, Bacidia luteola var. luteola (Ach.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola var. porriginosa (Turner) A.L. Sm., Bacidia rubella var. porriginosa (Turner) H. Olivier, Bacidiomyces rubellae Cif. & Tomas., Biatora luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola f. luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola var. luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola var. schweinitzii Tuck., Biatora rubella (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Lecidea granulosa var. porriginosa (Turner) Clemente, Lecidea luteola (Schrad.) Ach., Lecidea luteola var. acerina Ach., Lecidea luteola var. americana Fée, Lecidea luteola var. luteola (Schrad.) Ach., Lecidea luteola var. rubella Ach., Lichen luteolus Schrad., Lichen porriginosus Turner, Lichen rubellus (Hoffm.) Ach., Ochrolechia luteola (Schrad.) Overeem, Patellaria luteola (Schrad.) Müll. Arg., Patellaria rubella (Hoffm.) DC., Secoliga rubella (Hoffm.) Stizenb., Verrucaria rubella Hoffm.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Raphiospora viridescens A. Massal.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Peltigera laciniata & Peltigera sp., source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 26282 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 19918 [hb. Etayo]
[Woessia arvidssonii Sérus.]
Holotype GB, Arvidsson 290, source: Sérusiaux (1995), Lücking (2008), Aptroot (2002)
[Bacidia chloroticula (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Lecidea chloroticula Nyl., Woessia chloroticula (Nyl.) Puntillo, Bricaud & Sérus.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3668 [CDS]
source: Lücking (1999. 2008), Lücking & Matzer (2001), van den Boom et al. (2022); Lücking, R. 96-526 [QCAM]
[Bacidia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Coppins, Lecidea effusa var. delicata Larbal. ex Leight., Woessia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Sérus. & Diederich]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, preliminary, material needs verification; Nugra, F. 214 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65204 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65036 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9494 [CDS], more...
source: Lücking & Matzer (2001)
[Phyllopsora lacerata Timdal]
source: Déleg et. al (2021), Timdal (2008).; Klara Scharnagl 2272 [MSC]
[Bacidia medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) B. de Lesd., Bacidia molybditis (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Biatora medialis (Tuck ex Nyl.) Tuck., Biatora molybditis Tuck., Bilimbia molybditis (Tuck.) Riddle, Lecidea medialis Tuck. ex Nyl., Patellaria medialis (Tuck ex Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), van den Boom et al. (2022); Klara Scharnagl 2219 [MSC]
[Catillaria mirabilis Vězda]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), Lücking & Matzer (2001); Lücking, R. 96-527 [QCAM], Lücking, R. 96-807 [QCAM]
source: Lücking (2008)
[Bacidia pallidocarnea (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria pallidocarnea Müll.Arg.]
[Bacidia albescens f. albescens Bausch, Bacidia phacodes Körb., Lecidea phacodes (Körb.) Leight., Scoliciosporum molle f. albescens Kremp.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Woessia pseudohyphophorifera Lücking & Sérus.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008); Lücking, R. 96-581 [QCAM]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Bacidia scutellifera Vězda]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), Lücking & Matzer (2001); Lücking, R. 96-377 [QCAM], Lücking, R. 96-990 [QCAM]
[Bacidia squamulosula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecidea squamulosula Nyl.]
Holotype WIS, Kalb & Kalb 18326, source: Marbach (2000)
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016); Benítez, A. 105 [HUTPL]
[Bacidia pallidula (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Lecidea pallidula Kremp., Patellaria pallidula (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.]
[Cladonia jamesonii (Taylor) Mitt.]
problematic, name not resolved, the name has not widely be used and it remains unclear what it refers to, in need of revision, source: Taylor (1848); W. Jameson 180 [NY], Jameson, W. [PC]
[Baeomyces byssoides (L.) Gärtner, Mey. & Schrebius, Baeomyces rufus f. subsquamulosus (Nyl.) Frey, Baeomyces rufus var. prostii Harm., Baeomyces rufus var. subsquamulosus Nyl., Lichen rufus Huds.]
source: Kalb et al. (2000), Lücking (2008)
source: Kalb et al. (2000), Lücking (2008); Lücking, R. 96-505 [QCAM]
Holotype QCNE, Lücking 96-984, source: Lücking (2008); Lücking, R. 96-984 [INABIOEC-MECN-QCNE]
source: Lücking (2008)
[Bacidia palmularis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria palmularis Müll.Arg.]
source: Lücking (1999; as Bapalmuia cf. verrucosa), Kalb et al. (2000)
[Trypethelium carolinianum Tuck.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Myrionora australis (Rodr. Flakus & Printzen) S.Y. Kondr.]
Holotype PRA, Palice 3711, source: Printzen et al. (2016)
[Lecidea cuyabensis Malme, Phyllopsora cuyabensis (Malme) Zahlbr.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007), Déleg et al. (2021)
[Bacidia rufidula (Graewe) Zahlbr., Bilimbia rufidula Graewe, Lecidea rufidula (Graewe) Stizenb.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Bibbya muelleri (F. Wilson) J.H. Willis, Lecidea bullata Meyer & Flot., Siphula muelleri F. Wilson, Thalloidima bullatum (Meyen & Flot.) Müll. Arg., Thalloidima nitidum Müll.Arg., Toninia bullata (G. Meyen & Flotow) Zahlbr., Toninia nitida (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr.]
problematic, no modern record, source: Zahlbruckner (1905, 1907; as Toninia bullata)
[Microthelia thelena (Ach.) Trev., Mycomicrothelia thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw., Pyrenula thelena (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria thelena Ach.]
source: Aptroot (1991), Elix & McCarthy (1998) Weber (1993), Cevallos (2012); Bungartz, F. 9651 [CDS]
[Phoma cytospora (Vouaux) D. Hawks., Phyllosticta cytospora Vouaux, Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 30(2): 193 (1914)]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Parmotrema reticulatum & Parmotrema sp., source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25443 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 25364 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25444 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25427 [hb. Etayo]
[Biatora leucoxantha (Spreng.) Bél., Heterothecium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) A. Massal., Lecidea leucoxantha Spreng., Lopadium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. sorediatum Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. albidius Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. ussuriense Oxner, Miltidea leucoxantha (Spreng.) Stirt., Patellaria leucoxantha (Spreng.) Spreng., Sporopodium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpa Räsänen, Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpum Räsänen, Xanthocarpia leucoxantha (Spreng.) C. Müll.]
[Biatora curvescens Th. Fr., Lecania curvescens (Mudd) A.L. Sm., Lecanora castanea f. curvescens (Mudd) Th. Fr., Lecanora curvescens (Mudd) Nyl., Pannaria curvescens Mudd]
source: Flakus et al. (2013)
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: originally described from the Falkland Islands (in Fryday & Øvstedal 2012); morphologically and anatomically the Galapagos material is identical to the Falkland specimens; the chemistry of the type and Galapagos material was analyzed by J.A. Elix, who found 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid in both, source: Fryday & Øvstedal (2012)
[Alectoria irvingii Llano, Alectoria nitidula (Th. Fr.) Vain., Alectoria nitidula f. caespitosa (Savicz) Zahlbr., Alectoria nitidula f. nitidula (Th. Fr.) Vain., Alectoria nitidula f. patens (Savicz) Zahlbr., Bryopogon bicolor var. nitidulus (Th. Fr.) Gyeln., Bryopogon jubatus var. nitidulum Th. Fr., Bryopogon nitidulus (Th. Fr.) Elenkin & Savicz, Bryopogon nitidulus f. caespitosa Savicz, Bryopogon nitidulus f. nitidulus (Th. Fr.) Elenkin & Savicz, Bryopogon nitidulus f. patens Savicz]
source: González et al. (2017a, b)
[Arthonia leucodontis (Poelt & Döbbeler) Coppins, Arthonia muscigena Th. Fr., Arthonia muscigenae (Anzi) Jatta, Bryostigma leucodontis Poelt & Döbbeler, Coniangium muscigenum (Th. Fr.) Hellb.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Everniastrum sp., Parmotrema sp., & Parmotrema reticulatum, source: Etayo (2017)
[Allarthonia peltigerina (Almq.) H. Magn., Arthonia peltigerina (Almq.) H. Olivier, Arthonia vagans var. peltigerina Almq.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Peltigera polydactyla, source: Etayo (2017)
[Buellia aethalea f. aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr., Buellia aethalea f. aethaleoides (Nyl.) Grummann, Buellia aethalea f. baltica (Erichsen) Grummann, Buellia aethalea f. sororioides (Erichsen) Grummann, Buellia aethalea var. aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr., Buellia aethaleoides (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Buellia baltica Erichsen, Buellia baltica f. baltica Erichsen, Buellia baltica f. confervoides Erichsen, Buellia baltica f. geographica Erichsen, Buellia impressula (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia sororia Th. Fr., Buellia sororia f. immutata Anders, Buellia sororia f. sororia Th. Fr., Buellia sororia var. sororia Th. Fr., Buellia sororia var. sororioides (Erichsen) Riehm., Buellia sororioides Erichsen, Buellia sororioides f. dendritica Erichsen, Buellia sororioides f. sororioides Erichsen, Buellia verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd, Buellia verruculosa subsp. verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd, Buellia verruculosa var. verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd, Gyalecta aethalea Ach., Lecanora umbrinofusca Nyl., Lecidea aethalea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecidea aethaleoides Nyl., Lecidea impressula Leight., Lecidea sororia (Th. Fr.) Stizenb., Lecidea verruculosa Borrer, Lecidea verruculosa var. verruculosa Borrer, Lichen verruculosus Sm., Melanaspicilia aethalea (Ach.) Vain., Rinodina umbrinofusca (Nyl.) H. Olivier]
parasitized by Polycoccum nigrosporum and Sclerococcum leuckertii, source: Etayo (2017; as Buellia cf. aethalea); Aptroot, A. 63665 [CDS]
[Lecidea dejungens Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9858 [CDS]
[Buellia callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner, Buellia callispora var. callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner, Buellia restituta (Stirt. ex F.M. Bailey) Zahlbr., Buellia subconnexa (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Hafellia callispora (C. Knight) H. Mayrh. & Sheard, Hafellia demutans (Zahlbr.) Pusswald, Lecidea callispora C. Knight, Lecidea demutans Stirt., Lecidea restituta Stirt. ex F.M. Bailey, Lecidea subconnexa Stirt.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007); Nöske et al. (2007)
[Buellia disciformis var. cinereoferruginea (C. Knight) Zahlbr., Buellia disciformis var. vulgata (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier, Buellia disciformis var. wilsonii Räsänen, Buellia parasema de Not., Buellia parasema f. parasema De Not., Buellia parasema f. vulgata (Th. Fr.) Arnold, Buellia parasema subsp. parasema De Not., Buellia parasema subsp. vulgata (Th. Fr.) Hasse, Buellia parasema var. disciformis (Fr.) Th. Fr., Buellia parasema var. polyspora Imshaug ined., Buellia parasema var. triphragmia (Nyl.) Th. Fr., Buellia parasema var. vulgata Th. Fr., Hafellia disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer, Lecidea disciformis var. cinereoferruginea C. Knight, Lecidea parasema var. disciformis Fr., Lecidea punctata f. disciformis (Fr.) Hepp]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9866 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Santa Cruz, Academy Bay, along the shore of the bay, on the shore just above high tide mark, on lava rocks, abundant; associated with Arthothelium galapagoense, Caloplaca sp., and Lecanora sp., collected as part of the Jan. 21 - Mar.09, 1964 Galapagos International Scientific Project, 30-Jan-1964, Weber, W.A. s.n. [COLO 141642 (L-53904) and COLO 234372 (L-53904) – syntypes!; also distributed as Weber, Lich. Exs. [Boulder (Colorado)] no. 344) , source: Weber (1971, 1981, 1986) , Roth et al. (1978), Elix & McCarthy (1998); Bungartz, F. 8983 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3433 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3866 [CDS], Nugra, F. 133 [CDS], more...
[Baeomyces capensis Taylor, Diploicia capensis (Taylor) C.W. Dodge, Lecidea halonia Ach.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3756 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63269 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5381 [CDS]
[Buellia disciformis var. leptocline (Flot.) Räsänen, Buellia gevrensis Th. Fr., Buellia leptocline var. gevrensis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr., Buellia parasema subsp. leptocline (Flot.) Tuck., Lecidea disciformis var. leptocline (Flot.) Malbr., Lecidea gevrensis (Th. Fr.) Cromb., Lecidea gevrensis var. gevrensis (Th. Fr.) Cromb., Lecidea gevrensis var. prolata Nyl. ex Cromb., Lecidea leptocline (Flot.) Hue [as 'leptoclinis'], Lecidea leptocline Flot.]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007)
[Buellia australica Räsänen, Buellia glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana f. albinea Räsänen, Buellia glaziouana f. glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana var. glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana var. poliocheila (Vain.) Imshaug, Buellia glaziouana var. sensitiva (Zahlbr.) Imshaug, Buellia thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug comb. inval., Rinodina mamillana Tuck., Rinodina thomae Tuck.]
source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Diplotomma oidaleum (Tuck.) Szatala, Lecidea oidalea Nyl., Rhizocarpon oidaleum (Nyl.) Fink]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 6459 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6363 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6223 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8882 [CDS], more...
[Diplotomma proximatum (H. Magn.) S.R. Singh & D.D. Awasthi]
Holotype WIS, Kalb & Kalb 18499, source: Marbach (2000), Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016); K. Kalb 18103 [WIS], Benítez, A. 109 [HUTPL]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Ertz, D. 11599 [CDS]
[Buellia amblyogona Müll. Arg., Buellia exilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia italica A. Massal., Buellia italica var. debanensis Bagl., Buellia italica var. italica A. Massal., Buellia italica var. recobarina A. Massal., Buellia italica var. tumida A. Massal., Buellia krempelhuberi Zahlbr., Buellia lactea (A. Massal.) Körb., Buellia lactea var. cinerea Zahlbr., Buellia lactea var. lactea (A. Massal.) Körb., Buellia liguriensis B. de Lesd., Buellia olivaceofusca (Anzi) Zahlbr., Buellia recobarina (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg., Buellia spuria var. amblyogona (Müll. Arg.) Elix, Buellia spuria var. insularis (A. Massal.) Jatta, Buellia spuria var. spuria (Schaer.) Anzi, Catolechia lactea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Catolechia recobarina A. Massal., Lecidea contigua var. lactea Schaer., Lecidea spuria Schaer., Lecidea spuria var. spuria Schaer.]
[Lecidea spuria var. minutula Hepp, Lecidea stellulata Taylor, Lecidea stellulata f. albosparsa Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. hybrida Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. murina Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. protothallina Kremp., Lecidea stellulata f. stellulata Taylor]
[Buellia xanthinula auct. non (Müll. Arg.) Malme]
endemic to Galapagos, Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Santa Cruz, exact location unknown, Hassler Expedition 1872, Hill, T. s.n., ex Tuckerman herbarium sheet no. 3352 [FH 197151!], source: Dodge (1936), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), Imshaug (1955), Stewart (1912), Weber (1966, 1986); Aptroot, A. 64440 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5321 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8852 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9893 [CDS], more...
[Buellia disciformis subsp. subdisciformis (Leight.) Vain., Buellia disciformis var. subdisciformis (Leight.) H. Olivier, Buellia meiosperma (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Buellia ryssolea (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia subdisciformis var. meiosperma (Nyl.) J. Steiner, Lecidea meiosperma Nyl., Lecidea ryssolea Leight., Lecidea subdisciformis Leight., Lecidea subdisciformis var. meiosperma (Nyl.) Leight.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3885 [CDS]
native, questionably endem., Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Isabela, Volcán Alcedo, upper NNW-exposed slope inside the crater, 0°27’S, 91°7’W, 1055 m, open vegetation with Adianthus concinnum and scattered shrubs of Tournefortia rufosericea among basalt blocks in the vicinity of the sulfur vents, on basalt, Mar-2006, Aptroot 64881[CDS 31458 – holotype!, hb. Aptroot – isotype), source: Lumbsch et al. (2011); Bungartz, F. 8732 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8164 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64797 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64798 [CDS], more...
[Buellia minimula Tuck.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Pertusaria sp., source: Etayo (2017, 2020); K. Kalb 18426 [WIS], Etayo, J. 19976 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Physcia and Hyperphyscia adglutinata, source: Etayo (2017), van den Boom et al. (2022); Etayo, J. 20032 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Echinoplaca, source: Etayo (2017; as B. aff. pusilla); J. Etayo 19923 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 25546 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Sticta sp., Peltigera sp., & Lobariela crenulata, source: Etayo (2017), Diederich et al. (2022); Etayo, J. 25914 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 19962 [hb. Etayo]
[Parmelia confoederata W.L. Culb.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Parmelia coronata Fée, Parmelia glandulifera Fée]
source: Benítez et al. (2012, 2015), Benítez (2016); Benítez, A. 111 [HUTPL]
[Parmelia goebelii Zenker]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske (2005), Nöske et al. (2007), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Parmelia isidiza Nyl., Parmelia isidiza var. isidiza Nyl.]
source: Benítez et al. (2012, 2015), Benítez (2016); Benítez, A. 112 [HUTPL]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013a); Bungartz, F. 8544 [CDS]
[Parmelia marginalis Lynge, Parmelia marginalis var. marginalis Lynge, Parmelia njalensis C.W. Dodge, Parmelia scortella Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: only one specimen (Aptroot 65313) has a brown lower side throughout., source: Bungartz et al. (2013a); Aptroot, A. 65313 [CDS]
[Bulbothrix lobarica Jungbluth, Marcelli & Elix, Parmelia lobarica Junbluth, Marcelli & Elix, Parmelia subdissecta Nyl.]
[Parmelia suffixa Stirt.]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske (2005), Nöske et al. (2007), Mandl (2007), Benítez et al. (2012, 2015), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Benítez, A. 113 [HUTPL]
[Parmelia meizospora f. isidiosa Müll. Arg. nom. inval., Parmelia tabacina Mont. & Bosch]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Calenia aspidota (Vain.) Vězda, Ectolechia aspidota Vain., Gyalectidium aspidotum (Vain.) R. Sant., Sporopodium aspidotum (Vain.) Zahlbr.]
source: Kalb & Vězda (1988), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Lichen melanocarpus Sw., Sphaerophorus compressus Ach., Sphaerophorus compressus var. candidum Müll.Arg., Sphaerophorus compressus var. compressus Ach., Sphaerophorus coralloides var. compressus Taylor, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus (Sw.) DC., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. angustior (Reinke) Js. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. delicatus J.S. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. macrophyllus (Zahlbr.) Js. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. melanocarpus (Sw.) DC., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. palmatus Js. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. prolifer (F. Wilson) Js. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. ramosissimus Js. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. subteres (Zahlbr.) Js. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus f. vividulus (Colenso) Js. Murray, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus subsp. formosanus Zahlbr., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus subsp. hawaiiensis Ohlsson, Sphaerophorus melanocarpus subsp. melanocarpus (Sw.) DC., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. candidus (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. melanocarpus (Sw.) DC., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. scrobiculatus (C. Bab.) Js. Murray, Stereocaulon melanocarpum (Sw.) Raeusch.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Parmotrema, source: Etayo (2017), Diederich et al. (2022); Etayo, J. 25640 [hb. Etayo]
[Bacidia deplanata (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Byssolecania fumosonigricans var. deplanata (Müll.Arg.) Vězda, Patellaria deplanata Müll.Arg.]
[Bacidia fumosonigricans (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Gonolecania fumosonigricans (Müll. Arg.) Brusse, Patellaria fumosonigricans Müll.Arg., Patellaria fumosonigricans var. fumosonigricans Müll.Arg.]
[Gonolecania hymenocarpa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Lecaniella hymenocarpa (Vain.) Vain., Lecanora hymenocarpa Vain.]
[Pilocarpon discordans Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Spielmann, A.A. 8153 C [CDS], Rivas Plata, E. 4084 [CDS]
[Crocicreomyces guttiferae Bat. & Peres]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008); Lücking, R. 96-816 [QCAM]
[Bacidia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold ex P. James, Bacidia leucoblepharia var. leucoblepharia (Nyl.) Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bilimbia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Bilimbia leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea leucoblephara Nyl., Patellaria leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. fuscopallida Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. obscuratum Zahlbr., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. chloroticum Samp., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. poichilum Vain.]
[Bacidia leucoloma (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bacidia subternella (Nyl.) R. Sant., Biatorella conspersa f. leucoloma (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia sprucei (C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg.) Riddle, Catillaria subternella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Fellhanera subternella (Nyl.) Vězda, Lecanora sprucei C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg., Lecidea leucoloma (Müll.Arg.) Stizenb., Lecidea sprucei (C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg.) Nyl., Lecidea subternella Nyl., Microphiale sprucei (C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria leucoloma Müll.Arg., Patellaria sprucei Müll.Arg.]
[Biatora tricholoma Mont., Bilimbia tricholoma (Mont.) Fink]
[Acarospora aeruginosa Hasse, Acarospora heppii (Nageli ex Hepp) Nageli ex Körb., Acarospora heppii f. heppii (Nägeli) Nägeli, Acarospora heppii f. luteopruinosa Eitner, Lecanora heppii (Nägeli) Nyl., Myriospora heppii (Nägeli ex Körb.) Hue]
source: Knudsen (2012)
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 10453 [CDS]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Monocalenia monospora (Vězda) XavierLeite, M. Cáceres & Lücking]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008)
[Pseudocalenia solorinoides (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), Lücking & Matzer (2001)
source: Lücking (1999,2008)
[Caleniella triseptata (Zahlbr.) XavierLeite, M. Cáceres & Lücking]
source: Tibell (1996), van den Boom et al. (2022), Tibell & Kalb (1992); K. Kalb 18860 [WIS], K. Kalb 18861 [WIS]
[Calicium claviculare var. trachelinum Ach., Calicium lichenoides (L.) Schumach., Calicium salicinum f. xylonella (Ach.) Nádv., Calicium salicinum var. xylonellum (Ach.) Trevis., Calicium sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach., Calicium sphaerocephalum f. epiphloeum (Ach.) Erichsen, Calicium sphaerocephalum f. tenuistipitatum Roms, Calicium sphaerocephalum f. trachelinum (Ach.) Erichsen, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. araucariarum Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. arenarium (Nádv.) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. cinereofuscescens (Vain.) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. crustosum Turner & Borrer, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. elattosporum (F. Wilson) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. epiphloeum Ach., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. gyrocarpum (Nádv.) Oxner, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. meiocarpum (F. Wilson) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. proliferum Szatala & Timk, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. rufescens (Vain.) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. trachelinum (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. xylonellum (Ach.) Wahlenb., Calicium trachelinum Ach., Calicium trachelinum f. hemiphaeum Nyl. ex Cromb., Calicium trachelinum f. trachelinum Ach., Calicium trachelinum var. araucariarum Zahlbr., Calicium trachelinum var. cinereofuscescens Vain., Calicium trachelinum var. cinereorufescens Vain., Calicium trachelinum var. elattosporum F. Wilson, Calicium trachelinum var. hemiplodum Nyl. ex Leight., Calicium trachelinum var. meiocarpum F. Wilson, Calicium trachelinum var. rufescens Vain., Calicium trachelinum var. salicinum (Pers.) Sacc., Calicium trachelinum var. trachelinum Ach., Calicium xylonellum Ach., Cyphelium trachelinum (Ach.) Chevall., Phacotrum sphaerocephalum, Sphinctrina trachelinum (Ach.) Leight.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 64525 B [CDS], Nugra, F. 230 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Sán Cristóbal, area W of Cerro Pelado on the way to El Ripioso, 0°52’S, 89°28’W, 400 m, transition zone, open Psidium guajava shrubland with Macraea laricifolia and dominant annual herb Malachra capitata, on bark and wood, dead twigs of Psidium guajava, sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, August 2008, Bungartz 8489 (CDS-41135 – holotype!), source: Lumbsch et al. (2011); Bungartz, F. 8489 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5480 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7295 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9653 [CDS]
[Heterothecium perpallidum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Heterothecium perpallidum var. monosporum Müll.Arg., Heterothecium perpallidum var. perpallidum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea perpallida Nyl., Lopadium perpallidum (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
[Heterothecium phyllogenum Müll.Arg., Lecidea phyllogena (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Lopadium phyllogenum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Lopadium phyllogenum var. phyllogenum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr.]
source: Lücking (1999, 2008), van den Boom et al. (2022); Bungartz, F. 7320 D [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1932 [CDS]
[Blastenia brebissonii (Fée) Müll.Arg., Callopisma brebissonii (Fée) Müll.Arg., Lecanora brebissonii (Fée) Nyl., Lecanora brebissonii var. brebissonii (Fée) Nyl., Lecidea brebissonii Fée, Meroplacis brebissonii (Fée) Clem., Placodium brebissonii (Fée) Vain., Placodium brebissonii var. brebissonii (Fée) Vain.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007); J. Etayo 25546 [hb. Etayo]
[Blastenia cerina (Hedw.) B. de Lesd., Callopisma cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Callopisma cerinum f. cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Callopisma cerinum f. saxicola Arnold, Callopisma cerinum var. austroamericana Räsänen, Callopisma cerinum var. austroamericanum Räsänen, Callopisma cerinum var. cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Callopisma cerinum var. cyanoleprum (DC.) Walt. Watson, Callopisma cerinum var. fuscum A. Massal., Callopisma cerinum var. microcarpum Müll.Arg., Callopisma cerinum var. sorocarpa Vain., Caloplaca cerina f. cerina (Hedw.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca cerina var. anthracina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca cerina var. cerina, Caloplaca cerina var. chloroleuca (Sm.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca cerina var. cyanolepra (DC.) J.J. Kickx, Caloplaca cerina var. ehrhartii (Schaer.) Trevis., Caloplaca cerina var. microcarpa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Lecanora cerina (Hedw.) Ach., Lecanora cerina var. cerina (Hedw.) Ach., Lecanora cerina var. squamulosa Wedd, Lecidea cerina (Hedw.) Schaer., Lecidea cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Schaer., Lecidea cerina var. ehrhartii Schaer., Lichen cerinus Hedw., Parmelia cerina (Hedw.) Ach., Parmelia cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Ach., Parmelia cerina var. chrysaspis Ach., Parmelia cerina var. ravida (Hoffm.) Ach., Patellaria cerina (Hedw.) Hoffm., Patellaria cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Hoffm., Patellaria cerina var. cyanolepra DC., Placodium cerinum (Hedw.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Placodium cerinum f. cerinum (Hedw.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Placodium cerinum f. dispersum (H. Olivier) Szatala, Placodium cerinum f. fuscum (A. Massal.) Szatala, Placodium cerinum var. cerinum (Hedw.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Placodium cerinum var. flavum Anzi, Rinodina cerina (Hedw.) Gray, Teloschistes cerinus (Hedw.) Norman, Verrucaria cerina (Hedw.) Hoffm., Zeora cerina (Hedw.) Flot., Zeora cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Flot.]
source: Davey (1999), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Blastenia crocea (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Blastenia subcerina (Nyl.) B. de Lesd., Callopisma australe Müll.Arg., Callopisma australe var. aurantiaca Müll.Arg., Callopisma australe var. aurantiacum Müll.Arg., Callopisma australe var. australe Müll.Arg., Callopisma xanthaspis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca subcerina (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca subcerina var. aurantiaca (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca subcerina var. subcerina (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca verrucata (Hue) Zahlbr., Caloplaca xanthaspis (Kremp.) H. Magn., Lecanora erythroleuca var. subcerina Nyl., Lecanora verrucata Hue, Lecanora xanthaspis Kremp., Lecidea crocea Kremp., Lecidea subcerina (Nyl.) Hue, Placodium subcerinum (Nyl.) Vain., Triophthalmidium subcerina (Nyl.) Gyeln.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022); K. Kalb 18493 [WIS]
[Placodium cupuliferum Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020b); Bungartz, F. 9908 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9746 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5407 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5380 [CDS], more...
[Blastenia floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Callopisma floridanum (Tuck.) Müll.Arg., Callopisma floridanum var. floridanum (Tuck.) Müll.Arg., Lecanora floridana Tuck., Placodium floridanum (Tuck.) Tuck.]
[Callopisma aurantiacum var. granulare Müll.Arg., Callopisma granulare (Müll. Arg.) Malme, Caloplaca aureosora Poelt & Hinter., Placodium granulare (Müll. Arg.) Vain.]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 6170 A [CDS 34382], source: Bungartz et al. (2020b); Aptroot, A. 65023 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6170 A [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6093 [CDS]
[Blastenia obscurella J. Lahm, Blastenia squamulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Callopisma obscurellum (J. Lahm) J. Lahm, Callopisma sarcopidoides Körb., Caloplaca refellens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca sarcopisioides (Körb.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca squamulata (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Lecanora obscurella f. obscurella (J. Lahm) Nyl., Lecanora refellens Nyl., Lecanora squamulata Nyl., Pannaria squamulata (Nyl.) Hue, Placodium obscurellum (J. Lahm) Hepp, Placodium refellens (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Psoroma squamulatum (Nyl.) Harm., Pyrenodesmia obscurella (J. Lahm) M. Choisy]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Blastenia quadrilocularis (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Callopisma quadriloculare (Nyl.) Malme, Caloplaca tetraphora Zahlbr., Lecanora quadrilocularis (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea quadrilocularis Nyl., Triophthalmidium quadrilocularis (Nyl.) Gyeln.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007); K. Kalb 19445 [WIS]
[Callopisma subvitellinum Müll.Arg.]
source: Kalb & Aptroot (2017)
[Blasteniospora concolor (Dicks.) Trevis., Caloplaca concolor (Dicks.) Jatta, Caloplaca concolor var. concolor (Dicks.) Jatta, Caloplaca concolor var. vainioana Räsänen, Candelaria concolor f. concolor (Dicks.) Arnold, Candelaria concolor var. concolor (Dicks.) Arnold, Candelaria concolor var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham, Candelaria vulgaris A. Massal., Candelaria vulgaris f. vulgaris A. Massal., Lecanora concolor (Dicks.) Lamy, Lecanora concolor f. concolor Ramond, Lecanora concolor f. elata (Arnold) Mig., Lecanora concolor var. concolor Ramond, Lecanora concolor var. reagens Werner, Lichen concolor Dicks., Lobaria concolor (Dicks.) Hoffm., Physcia concolor (Dicks.) Bagl. & Carestia, Teloschistes concolor (Dicks.) Tuck., Teloschistes concolor var. concolor (Dicks.) Tuck., Xanthoria concolor (Dicks.) Th. Fr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, first published as nomen nudum by M. Westberg in Nash et al. (2002), then validated in M. Westb. & Arup, Bibl. Lich. 106: 358 (2011)., source: Nash & et al. (2002) Westberg & Arup (2011); Bungartz, F. 4107 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10361 [CDS]
[Caloplaca reflexa (Nyl.) Flagey, Candelaria reflexa (Nyl.) Arnold, Gyalolechia reflexa (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecanora reflexa (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecanora vitellina var. reflexa Nyl.]
[Blastenia xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) H. Olivier, Candelaria xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Kieff., Candelariella lutella (Vain.) Räsänen, Candelariella vitellina f. lutella (Vain.) Zahlbr., Candelariella vitellina var. xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Elenkin, Lecanora xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Röhl., Lecanora xanthostigma var. lutella Vain., Lecanora xanthostigma var. xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Röhl., Lichen xanthostigmus Pers. ex Ach.]
[Parmelia cryptochlorophaea Hale, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Hale]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 4915 [CDS], Spielmann, A.A. 10712 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11810 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8552 [CDS], more...
[Parmelia sublaevigata var. texana (Tuck.) Nyl., Parmelia texana Tuck., Pseudoparmelia texana (Tuck.) Hale]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Erioderma divisum, Holotype QCA, Etayo 17349, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 17349 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 17349 [QCAM]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Lobariella sp. & Lobaria sp., Holotype BM, Fernandez 1088, source: Kondratyuk and Galloway (1995), Etayo (2017), Flakus et al. (2019)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Cora squamiformis, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 27030 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 19961 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Hypotrachyna sp., source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25502 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 26973 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 20095 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 26990 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Leptogium sp., source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 17242 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Leptogium, source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Heterodermia barbifera and H. comosa, Holotype B, Sipman 53068, source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Normandina sp. & Normandina pulchella, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20006 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 26443 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 17317 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Dictyonema sp., source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 20179 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Lobaria pulmonaria, Sticta sp., Heterodermia sp., & Rinodina sp., Holotype QCA, Etayo 19988, source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 19917 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 20008 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 26286 [hb. Etayo], Etayo, J. 25741 [hb. Etayo], more...
[Muellerella triseptata Diederich]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Hypotrachyna sp., source: Etayo (2017); J. Etayo 19921 [hb. Etayo], J. Etayo 26284 [hb. Etayo]
source: Breuss (1993)
[Placidium pilosellum (Breuss) Breuss]
source: Castillo-Monroy et al. (2016)
[Catapyrenium squamulosum var. squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss, Dermatocarpella squamulosa (Ach.) H. Harada, Endocarpon pusillum var. squamulosum (Ach.) Grognot, Endocarpon squamulosum Ach., Placidium squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss, Placidium squamulosum var. squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss]
source: Breuss (1993), Castillo-Monroy (2016); Arvidsson... 2683 [GB], Arvidsson... 2730 [GB], Arvidsson, Lars et al. 6144 [GB]
[Biatorina baliola (Nyl.) Hellb., Biatorina chalybeia subsp. chloroscotina (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Biatorina lenticularis f. chloropoliza (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatorina lenticularis var. chloropoliza (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Catillaria chalybeia var. chloropoliza (Nyl.) H. Kilias, Catillaria chloroscotina (Nyl.) Arnold, Catillaria lenticularis f. chloropoliza Boistel, Lecidea baliola Nyl., Lecidea chloropoliza (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea chloroscotina Nyl., Lecidea lenticularis f. chloropoliza Nyl., Lecidea spodoplaca f. baliola (Nyl.) Hue, Patellaria baliola (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63724 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10001 [CDS]
[Bacidia declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Biatora declinis Tuck., Biatorina nigroclavata (Nyl.) Arnold, Bilimbia declinis (Tuck.) Fink, Lecidea declinis Nyl., Lecidea nigroclavata Nyl., Microlecia nigroclavata (Nyl.) M. Choisy]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Biatora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hepp, Biatorina atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. microspora Arnold, Bilimbia atropurpurea (Schaer.) Branth & Rostr., Catillaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. ecrustacea Szatala, Catillaria atropurpurea f. gyaliza (Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria atropurpurea f. microspora (Arnold) H. Olivier, Catillaria atropurpurea subsp. neuschildii (Körb.) Th. Fr., Lecanora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hedl., Lecidea atropurpurascens Nyl., Lecidea atropurpurea (Schaer.) Leight., Lecidea intermixta Nyl., Lecidea intermixta var. lignaria Nyl., Lecidea sphaeroides var. atropurpurea Schaer., Patellaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Müll. Arg.]
[Leptorhaphis cinchonarum (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Tomasellia cinchonarum Müll.Arg.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022); R. C. Harris 17917 [NY]
[Leptorhaphis dominicana Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 64343 [CDS]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Hypotrachyna sp., Holotype QCA, Etayo 25436, source: Etayo (2017); Etayo, J. 25436 [hb. Etayo]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Lecanora polytropa, source: Etayo (2017)
[Bryopogon aculeatus (Schreb.) Hazsl., Cetraria aculeata f. aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., Cetraria aculeata var. aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., Cetraria aculeata var. sorediata Du Rietz, Cetraria tenuissima (L.) Vain., Cetraria tenuissima f. lignicola Erichsen, Cetraria tenuissima f. sorediella Erichsen, Cetraria tenuissima f. tenuissima (L.) Vain., Cetraria tenuissima var. campestris (Schaer.) Erichsen, Cetraria tenuissima var. tenuissima (L.) Vain., Cladonia aculeata (Schreb.) Baumg., Coelocaulon aculeatum (Schreb.) Link, Coelocaulon aculeatum f. aculeatum (Schreb.) Link, Coelocaulon aculeatum f. sorediatum (Du Rietz) D. Hawksw., Coelocaulon aculeatum subsp. aculeatum (Schreb.) Link, Coelocaulon tenuissimum (L.) R. Howe, Coralloides aculeatum (Schreb.) Hoffm., Cornicularia aculeata (Schreb.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata f. acanthella (Ach.) H. Magn., Cornicularia aculeata f. aculeata (Schreb.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata f. crinita (Flörke) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. edentula (Ach.) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. inermis (Harm.) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. lignicola (Erichsen) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. minutella (Harm.) Lettau, Cornicularia aculeata f. sorediella (Erichsen) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. tenuis Å.E. Dahl, Cornicularia aculeata var. aculeata (Schreb.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata var. alpina Schaer., Cornicularia aculeata var. campestris (Schaer.) Rabenh., Cornicularia aculeata var. crinita Flörke, Cornicularia aculeata var. edentula Ach., Cornicularia aculeata var. sorediata (Du Rietz) Du Rietz, Cornicularia aculeata var. spadicea (Roth) Ach., Cornicularia spadicea (Roth) Ach., Cornicularia tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. acanthella (Ach.) Räsänen, Cornicularia tenuissima f. alpina (Schaer.) Erichsen, Cornicularia tenuissima f. crinita (Flörke) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. edentula (Ach.) Erichsen, Cornicularia tenuissima f. inermis (Harm.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. minutella (Harm.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. sorediella (Erichsen) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. spadicea (Roth) Navàs, Cornicularia tenuissima f. tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. acanthella (Ach.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. alpina (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. edentula (Ach.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. spadicea (Roth) Keissl., Cornicularia tenuissima var. tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr., Lichen aculeatus Schreb., Lichen spadiceus Roth, Lichen tenuissimus L., Lobaria aculeata (Schreb.) Hoffm., Parmelia aculeata (Schreb.) Spreng., Parmelia spadicea (Roth) Spreng., Platysma aculeatum (Schreb.) Frege]
source: Návas (1908), Sklenář et al. (2010), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Cetraria delisei (Nyl.) Vain., Cetraria delisei f. delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Nyl., Cetraria delisei f. dilatata (Vain.) Rass., Cetraria delisei f. media (Savicz) Rass., Cetraria delisei f. subdilatata (Vain.) Hasselrot, Cetraria delisei subsp. delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Nyl., Cetraria delisei subsp. fastigiata Delise ex Nyl., Cetraria delisei var. delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Nyl., Cetraria delisei var. dilatata (Vain.) Hasselrot, Cetraria delisei var. tenuis (Räsänen) Hasselrot, Cetraria hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr., Cetraria hiascens f. angustata Norfl.{?} ex Räsänen, Cetraria hiascens f. delisei (Bory) Rass., Cetraria hiascens f. dilatata Rass., Cetraria hiascens f. fastigiata Delise, Cetraria hiascens f. hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr., Cetraria hiascens f. media Savicz, Cetraria hiascens f. subdilatata Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. delisei (Bory) Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. dilatata Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr., Cetraria hiascens var. rhizophora Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. tenuis Räsänen, Cetraria islandica var. delisei Bory ex Shaer.]
[Allodium brunneolum (Ach.) Kieff., Calicium brunneolum Ach., Calicium melanophaeum subsp. brunneolum (Ach.) Nyl. ex Norrl., Calicium trichiale var. brunneolum (Ach.) Nyl., Chaenotheca hygophila, Cyphelium brunneolum (Ach.) De Not., Cyphelium trichiale var. brunneolum (Ach.) Mudd, Embolus brunneolus (Ach.) Wallr., Phacotium brunneolum (Ach.) Trevis.]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Calicium carthusiae Harm., Calicium chlorellum Ach., Chaenotheca carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau, Chaenotheca carthusiae f. carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau, Chaenotheca carthusiae f. galiciense Tobol., Chaenotheca carthusiae f. moravica Nádv., Chaenotheca phaeocephala var. chlorella (Ach.) Th. Fr., Phacotium chlorellum (Ach.) Poetsch]
source: Flakus et al. (2013)
[Coniocybe citriocephala F. Wilson]
source: Tibell (1996)
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), van den Boom et al. (2022)
source: Flakus et al. (2013)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Arthonia sp., source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Lecanactis epileuca, source: Etayo (2017; as C. cf. brevipes)
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 65086 [CDS]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on unidentified lichens with Trentepohlia as photobiont, source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Pyrgidium montellicum, source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on unidentified lichens with Trentepohlia as photobiont, source: Etayo (2017, as Chaenothecopsis aff. sagenidii); Etayo, J. 20083 [hb. Etayo]
[Chaenotheca savonica (Räsänen) Tibell, Mycocalicium savonicum Räsänen]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on unidentified lichens and algae, source: Tibell (1996), Etayo (2017)
[Calicium viridireagens Nádv.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Chaenotheca sp., source: Etayo (2017)
[Chroodiscus alborosellus (Nyl.) Kalb, Graphis alborosella Nyl., Ocellularia alborosella (Nyl.) R. Sant., Thelotrema alborosellum (Nyl.) Tuck.]
[Urceolaria cinchonarum Fée]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Ocellularia diploschistoides Zahlbr.]
source: Chuquimarca et al (2019), Benítez et al. (2019); Benítez, A. 12 [HUTPL]
Holotype B, Sipman & Mandl 51330, source: Sipman (2014)
[Graphina leprocarpa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Graphis leprocarpa Nyl., Thelotrema leprocarpum (Nyl.) Tuck.]
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Chiodecton endoleucum Müll.Arg., Enterographa effusa (Fée) A. Massal., Syncesia effusa (Fée) Tehler]
source: Benítez (2016), Benítez et al. (2019); Benítez, A. 79 [HUTPL]
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
source: van den Boom et al. (2022)
[Melanodecton sphaerale (Ach.) A. Massal.]
source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016), van den Boom et al. (2022); Benítez, A. 117 [HUTPL]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Sticta weigelii, source: Etayo (2017)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Erioderma sp., Holotype LPB, Etayo 27685, source: Etayo (2017)
[Crocynia flava (Schreb.) Hue, Lepra candelaris (L.) Wiggers, Lepraria candelaria (L.) Fr., Lepraria flava (Schreb.) Ach., Lepraria flava f. flava (Schreb.) Ach., Lepraria flava f. quercina Zopf, Lichen flavus Schreb.]
[Caliciella corynella var. chlorina (Ach.) Räsänen, Calicium chlorinum (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium chlorinum f. albipes (Vain.) Keissl., Calicium chlorinum f. chlorinum (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium chlorinum subsp. paroicum (Ach.) Körb., Calicium chlorinum var. chlorinum (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium chlorinum var. exsertum (Nyl.) Keissl., Coniocybe chlorina (Ach.) Rabenh., Crocynia chlorina (Ach.) Hue, Lepraria chlorina (Ach.) Ach., Lichen chlorinus Ach., Pulveraria chlorina (Ach.) Ach., Trachylia chlorina (Ach.) Rabenh.]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007)
[Micarea chrysophthalma P. James]
source: Benítez et al. (2015), Benítez (2016); Benítez, A. 118 [HUTPL]
[Lepraria xanthina Vain.]
source: Bungartz et al. (2013c), Kalb (2001), Knudsen & Bungartz (2013), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske (2005), Nöske et al. (2007), Benítez et al. (2019), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), van den Boom et al. (2022); K. Kalb 19466 [WIS], A. Higgins & M. Higgins 1971-03-18 [FH], T. Hill 1872-00-00 [FH], A. Higgins & M. Higgins 1971-03-25 [FH], more...
[Cenomyce australis Pers., Cenomyce diatrypa Taylor, Cenomyce terebrata Laurer, Cladia collodes (Hook. f. & Taylor) C.W. Dodge, Cladia taylorii C.W. Dodge, Cladonia aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata f. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata f. cetrarioides Hellb., Cladonia aggregata f. subdivergens Hellb., Cladonia aggregata subsp. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata subsp. neutra Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata subsp. subminiata Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata var. cetrarioides (Hellb.) Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. straminea Müll.Arg., Cladonia aggregata var. subdivergens (Hellb.) Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. tenera F. Wilson, Cladonia australis (Pers.) Sambo, Cladonia cornicularia Flörke, Cladonia gorgonea var. subrangiferina Nyl., Cladonia gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina f. decumbens Abbayes, Cladonia gorgonina f. gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. subrangiferina (Nyl.) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. turgidior (Nyl.) Vain., Cladonia neocaledonica Räsänen, Cladonia terebrata (Laurer) Flörke, Coralloides gorgonina Bory, Dufourea collodes Hook. f. & Taylor, Lichen aggregatus Sw., Stereocaulon aggregatum (Sw.) Raeusch.]
source: Müller (1879), Romeguère (1879), Weber (1981, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Ahti (2000), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007), Mandl (2007), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), González et al. (2017a, b), González et al. (2019); Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1981, 1986), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022), van den Boom et al. (2022); W.A. Weber 1976-04-11 [ASU], R.C. Harris 17117 [ASU], Weber, W. A 130577 [MSC], Weber, W. 55403 [MIN], more...
[Cladonia miniata var. anaemica (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cladonia sanguinea f. anaemica Nyl., Cladonia sanguinea var. anaemica Nyl.]
problematic, no modern record, source: Müller (1879), Romeguère (1879)
[Cladina arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & Culb., Cladonia sylvatica (L.) Rab., Cladonia sylvatica f. caerulescens Schade, Cladonia sylvatica f. decumbens Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. fissa Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. gigantea (Bory) Vain., Cladonia sylvatica f. grandis Flörke, Cladonia sylvatica f. inactiva Asahina, Cladonia sylvatica f. penicillata Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. polycarpia Plk.{?}, Cladonia sylvatica f. pygmaea Sandst., Cladonia sylvatica f. sphagnoides (Hepp) Parrique, Cladonia sylvatica f. subspumosa Coem., Cladonia sylvatica f. turgida Anders, Cladonia sylvatica var. eusylvatica Kugan{?}, Cladonia sylvatica var. laevigata Vain., Cladonia sylvatica var. pycnoclada (Pers.) Pers., Cladonia sylvatica var. scabrosa Leight.]
[Cladina arbuscula subsp. arbuscula (Wallr.) Burgaz, Cladina arbuscula subsp. imshaugii (Ahti) Ahti, Cladina arbuscula subsp. pachyderma Ahti]
source: González et al. (2017b, 2019), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Cladina arbuscula subsp. boliviana (Ahti) Ahti, Cladina boliviana (Ahti) Ahti, Cladonia boliviana Ahti]
source: González et al. (2017a, b), Ahti (2000), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Bungartz, F. 8338 [CDS], Arvidsson... 1501 [GB], Arvidsson... 4282 [GB], Holm-Nielsen... 3730 [GB], more...
source: Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Cladonia degenerans var. ramosa Nyl., Cladonia physodalica Elix, Cladonia poeciloclada Abbayes, Cladonia poeciloclada f. brachiata Abbayes, Cladonia poeciloclada f. poeciloclada Abbayes]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 5744 [CDS 33396]; IUCN: Critical B2a, b(ii, iii), D, (preliminary assessment), source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 5744 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5749 [CDS]
[Cladonia cariosa f. cariosa (Ach.) Spreng., Cladonia cariosa var. cariosa (Ach.) Spreng., Cladonia pityrodes Nyl., Lichen cariosus Ach.]
[Imbricaria ceratophylla (Sw.) Hepp]
source: Dodge (1935), Stewart (1912), Svenson (1935), Weber (1966, 1981,1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Nöske et al. (2007), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); W.A. Weber 1976-04-18 [ASU], W.A. Weber L--40270 [ASU], 13155 L-40270 [OMA], Weber, W. A 130582 [MSC], more...
[Cenomyce chlorophaea Flörke ex Sommerf., Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) V. Wirth, Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke]
parasitized by Scutula epicladonia , source: González et al. (2019), Ahti (2000), Etayo (2017); W.A. Weber 1964-01-23 [ASU], Weber, W. A 120720 [MSC], William A. Weber 1964-01-23 [BRY], W.A. Weber s.n. [WIS], more...
[Cladonia coccifera f. asotea (Ach.) Vain., Cladonia coccifera var. asotea Ach., Cladonia coccifera var. cornucopioides, Lichen cocciferus L., Scyphophorus cocciferus]
parasitized by Epicladonia sandstedei (Etayo 2017), source: Nöske et al. (2007), Mandl (2007), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Ahti (2000), González et al. (2017a, b), Etayo (2017); Richard C. Harris 17770 [S]
[Cladina alpestroides Abbayes, Rev. Bryol. Lichénol., N.S. 16: 79 (1947), Cladina confusa (R. Sant.) Follmann & Ahti, Cladina galapagosensis (Ahti) W.A. Weber, Cladina leptoclada (Abbayes) D.J. Galloway, Cladina pohlia (R. Sant.) W.A. Weber, Cladina pycnoclada subsp. thyrsifera Nyl., Cladina sylvatica f. sylvestris (Oeder) Navás, Brotéria, sér. bot. 11: 24, tab. VI, fig. 1 (1913), Cladonia alpestroides Abbayes, Cladonia fallax f. exalbescens (Vain.) Abbayes, Cladonia impexa f. exalbescens (Vain.) Abbayes, Cladonia impexa f. thyrsifera (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia leptoclada Abbayes, Cladonia leptoclada f. leptoclada Abbayes, Cladonia leptoclada f. thyrsifera (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia pycnoclada f. exalbescens Vain., Cladonia pycnoclada var. exalbescens Vain., Cladonia sylvatica var. sylvestris (Oeder) Vain., Lichen rangiferinus var. sylvestris Oeder]
[Cladina confusa f. bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Ahti, Cladonia bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Ahti, Cladonia fallax f. bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Abbayes, Cladonia pohlia R. Sant., Cladonia polia R. Sant. (orthographic error), Cladonia rangiferina f. bicolor Müll.Arg.]
source: Müller (1879; as Cladonia rangiferina f. bicolor; Weber (1981), Ahti (2000), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Mandl (2007), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), González et al. (2017b); Bungartz, F. 3986 [CDS], Luong, T.T. s.n. [CDS], Ertz, D. 11797 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64674 [CDS], more...
[Cenomyce coniocraea Flörke, Cenomyce coniocraea var. coniocraea Flörke, Cenomyce coniocraea var. ramulosa Delise, Cladonia coniocraea f. ramulosa (Delise) M. Choisy]
source: Benítez et al. (2012, 2015); Benítez, A. 119 [HUTPL]
source: González et al. (2019), Ahti (2000), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Bungartz, F. 8334 [CDS]
source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), González et al. (2019); Aptroot, A. 65262 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65721 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63384 [CDS]
[Baeomyces turbinatus var. crispatus Ach., Cladonia arborea Stirt., Cladonia crispata f. crispata (Ach.) Flot., Cladonia crispata var. crispata (Ach.) Flot., Cladonia crispata var. gracilescens (Rabenh.) Vain., Cladonia furcata var. crispata (Ach.) Flörke]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007), González et al. (2017a, b)
[Cladonia cryptochlorophaea f. cryptochlorophaea Asahina, Cladonia cryptochlorophaea f. inactiva Asahina]
source: González et al. (2019), Ahti (1992, 2000)
[Cladonia dactylota var. dactylota Tuck., Cladonia dactylota var. sorediata Tuck., Cladonia dactylota var. symphycarpia Tuck., Cladonia sorediosocapitata B. de Lesd.]
[Cladonia abietiformis Harm., Cladonia congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. subfarinosa H. Magn., Cladonia didyma f. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia didyma f. subulata Sandst., Cladonia didyma subsp. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. muscigena (Eschw.) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. rugifera Vain., Cladonia didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vain., Cladonia isidioclada Mont. & Bosch, Cladonia macilenta var. subcarcata Räsänen, Cladonia melanodes Nyl., Cladonia muscigena Eschw., Cladonia pulchella Schwein., Cladonia sphaerulifera Taylor, Cladonia vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Cladonia vulcanica f. isidioclada (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. melanodes (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. minor Robbins, Cladonia vulcanica f. vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Scyphophorus didymus Fée]
[Cenomyce pyxidata var. fimbriata (L.) Ach., Cladonia fimbriata f. major (K.G. Hagen) Vain., Cladonia fimbriata var. major (K.G. Hagen) H. Magn., Cladonia major (K.G. Hagen) Sandst., Cladonia major f. major (K.G. Hagen) Sandst., Cladonia major f. prolifera (Retz.) Anders, Cladonia minor f. simplex (Weiss) M. Choisy, Lichen fimbriatus L., Lichen major K.G. Hagen, Lichen simplex Weiss]
source: Zahlbruckner (1907), Zahlbruckner (1905), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
problematic, name not resolved, no modern record, source: Návas (1908)
problematic, name not resolved, no modern record, source: Zahlbruckner (1905)
[Cenomyce allotropa var. corymbosa Ach., Cenomyce furcata (Huds.) Ach., Cenomyce furcata subsp. furcata (Huds.) Ach., Cenomyce furcata subsp. recurva Ach., Cenomyce furcata var. furcata (Huds.) Ach., Cladonia furcata f. pinnata (Flörke) Choisy, Cladonia furcata subsp. furcata (Huds.) Schrad., Cladonia furcata subsp. subrangiformis (Scriba ex Sandst.) Pišút, Cladonia furcata var. cancellata Müll.Arg., Cladonia furcata var. corymbosa (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia furcata var. palamaea (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia furcata var. pinnata (Flörke) Vain., Cladonia furcata var. subrangiformis (L. Scriba ex Sandst.) Hennipman, Cladonia furcata var. tenuicaulis Müll.Arg., Cladonia herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick, Cladonia narkodes Kremp., Cladonia palamaea (Ach.) Fink, Cladonia pinnata (Flörke) Anders, Cladonia racemosa Hoffm., Cladonia racemosa f. racemosa Hoffm., Cladonia racemosa f. spinescens (Hoffm.) M. Choisy, Cladonia racemosa var. racemosa Hoffm., Cladonia racemosa var. rigidula (A. Massal.) M. Choisy, Cladonia racemosa var. spinosa (Huds.) M. Choisy, Cladonia subrangiformis Sandst., Cladonia subrangiformis f. foliofera Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. marmoladae Sambo, Cladonia subrangiformis f. pustarum Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. spinulifera Trass, Cladonia subrangiformis f. subrangiformis L. Scriba ex Sandst., Cladonia subrangiformis f. subuliformis Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. truncatula Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. vagans Tomin, Cladonia subrangiformis var. praestigiosa Lettau, Cladonia subrangiformis var. subrangiformis L. Scriba ex Sandst., Lichen arietinus Dubois, Lichen spinosus Huds.]
source: González et al. (2019), Ahti (2000), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Erik Asplund 1955-09-23 [S]
problematic, name not resolved, no modern record, source: Müller (1879), Romeguère (1879)
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
Holotype B, Aptroot & Hensen 108101A, source: Ahti (2000)
[Cladonia subsquamosa f. attenuata Vain., Cladonia subsquamosa f. granulosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cladonia subsquamosa var. granulosa Vain.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Ahti (2000); Gunnar Harling 5163 [S]
[Cladonia chlorophaea var. grayi (G. Merr.) P.A. Duvign., Cladonia grayi f. aberrans Asahina, Cladonia pyxidata subsp. grayi (G. Merr. ex Sandst.) V. Wirth]
source: Ahti (1992), Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), González et al. (2017); Herrera-Campos, M.A. 10700 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63195 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8344 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64651 [CDS]
[Cladina halei Ahti]
source: González et al. (2017, 2019), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
[Cenomyce pyxidata var. conistea Delise, Cladonia conistea (Delise) Asahina, Cladonia conoidea Ahti, Cladonia humilis var. bougeanica A.W. Archer, Cladonia humilis var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer, Cladonia humilis var. humilis (With.) J.R. Laundon, Cladonia pyxidata f. conistea (Delise) Delise, Lichen humilis With.]
source: Ahti (1992), Ahti (2000), González et al. (2019)
[Cladonia subisabellina Abbayes]
source: Ahti (1992), González et al. (2019), van den Boom et al. (2022)
source: Ahti & Stenroos (1986), González et al. (2017a, b, 2019), Ahti (2000), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022); Erik Asplund L416 [S]
parasitized by Stigmidium ahtii, source: Ahti (2000), Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007), Mandl (2007), Mittermeier et al. (2015), Etayo (2017), González et al. (2017a, b); Palice, Z. s.n. [DUKE], Z. Palice 1999-08-07 [UPS], Z. Palice 1999-08-07 [BG]
[Cenomyce bacillaris (Ach.) Ach., Cladonia bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. mucronata (Delise) M. Choisy, Cladonia bacillaris f. nana Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris f. pityropoda Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. subscyphifera Vain., Cladonia bacillaris f. tingens Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris subsp. bacillaris, Cladonia bacillaris var. bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris var. elegantor Vain., Cladonia bacillaris var. pacifica Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris var. tubaeformis (Mudd) M. Choisy, Cladonia balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii f. balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii f. chlorophaeoides (Vain.) Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. cornigera (Vain.) Oxner, Cladonia balfourii f. squamulosa A. Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. subprolifera (Vain.) A. Evans, Cladonia brebissonii var. ostreata (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Cladonia coccifera f. macilenta (Hoffm.) Mudd, Cladonia coccifera f. subulata Hoffm., Cladonia cylindrica var. squamigera (Vain.) M. Choisy, Cladonia cylindrica var. vermicularis (Rabenh.) M. Choisy, Cladonia fimbriata f. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia fimbriata var. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia floerkeana var. bacillaris (Leight.) Lynge, Cladonia macilenta f. squamigera (Vain.) Sandst., Cladonia macilenta subsp. bacillaris Ach., Cladonia macilenta var. flabellulata Müll.Arg., Cladonia macilenta var. ostreata Nyl., Cladonia macilenta var. scabrosa (Mudd) Cromb., Cladonia macilenta var. squamigera Vain., Cladonia ostreata (Nyl.) Britzelm., Scyphophorus filiformis]
source: Ahti (1992), Ahti (2000), Sklenář et al. (2010; as C. cf. macrophyllodes)
source: González et al. (2017a, b)
source: González et al. (2019), Ahti (2000)
[Cladonia merochlorophaea f. inactiva Asahina]
source: González et al. (2019), González et al. (2017)
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004), Nöske et al. (2007)
[Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Burgaz, Cladina mitis (Sandst.) Hustich, Cladina mitis f. arenicola Trass, Cladina mitis f. mitis (Sandst.) W.L. Culb., Cladina mitis f. spinulifera Trass, Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Ruoss, Cladonia arbuscula subsp. stictica Ruoss, Cladonia arbuscula var. mitis (Sandst.) Sipman, Cladonia mitis f. soralifera Sandst., Cladonia mitis f. tenuis Sandst., Cladonia sylvatica var. mitis (Sandst.) Kušan]
source: Diels (1937), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Cladonia merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea Sipman]
source: Nöske & Sipman (2004)
[Cladonia caperatica Nuno, Cladonia coniocraea f. ceratodes (Flörke) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Cladonia coniocraea var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Oxner, Cladonia fimbriata f. ceratodes Flörke, Cladonia fimbriata var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Schaer., Cladonia furcata var. notabilis Müll.Arg., Cladonia invisa Robbins, Cladonia lepidula Kremp., Cladonia lepidula var. lepidula Kremp., Cladonia leprosula Magn., Cladonia ochrochlora f. ceratodes (Flörke) Harm., Cladonia ochrochlora var. spadicea Müll.Arg., Cladonia pergracilis Kremp.]
source: Ahti (1992), Ahti (2000), Chuquimarca et al (2019), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022)
[Cladonia peltastica (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Cladonia peltastica f. peltastica (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Cladonia peltastica f. pertricosa (Kremp.) Vain., Cladonia peltastica var. peltastica (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
source: Nöske et al. (2007)
[Capitularia pleurota Flörke, Cladonia coccifera subsp. pleurota (Flörke) M. Hauck, Cladonia coccifera var. pleurota (Flörke) Schaer., Cladonia cornucopioides var. grandis Kremp., Cladonia cornucopioides var. pleurota (Flörke) F. Wilson]
[Baeomyces pocillum Ach., Cladonia gonggaensis S.Y. Guo & J.C. Wei, Cladonia pyxidata subsp. pocillum (Ach.) Å.E. Dahl, Cladonia pyxidata var. pocillum (Ach.) Flot.]
source: Ahti (1992, 2000); Siegvart Horneman 1964-02-18 [BRY]
[Cenomyce portentosa Dufour, Cenomyce sylvatica (L.) Flörke, Cladina alpestris var. spumosa (Flörke) Zopf, Cladina impexa B. de Lesd., Cladina portentosa (Dufour) Follmann, Cladina portentosa f. portentosa (Dufour) Follmann, Cladina portentosa f. spumosa (Flörke) Sandst., Cladina portentosa f. subimpexa (P.A. Duvign.) Ahti, Cladina portentosa subsp. portentosa (Dufour) Follmann, Cladina spumosa (Flörke) Zopf, Cladonia impexa f. condensata (Harm.) Motyka, Cladonia impexa f. laxiuscula, Cladonia impexa f. portentosa (Dufour) Harm., Cladonia impexa f. spumosa (Flörke) Mig., Cladonia portentosa f. erinacea (Desm.) Sandst., Cladonia portentosa f. portentosa (Dufour) Coem., Cladonia portentosa f. subimpexa (P.A. Duvign.) Ahti, Cladonia portentosa subsp. portentosa (Dufour) Coem., Cladonia rangiferina f. spumosa Flörke, Cladonia rangiferina var. sylvatica (L.) Hoffm. nom. rejic., Cladonia spumosa (Flörke) Sandst., Cladonia subimpexa P.A. Duvign., Cladonia sylvatica var. condensata Harm., Cladonia sylvatica var. impexa (Harm.) Kušan]
problematic, reports by Müller (1879) and Romeguère (1879) most likely refer to C. confusa, source: Müller (1879; as Cladonia rangiferina var. sylvatica), Romeguère (1879; as Cladonia rangiferina var. sylvatica), González et al. (2017b; as C. aff. portentosa)
source: Ahti (2000)
[Cenomyce pycnoclada Pers.]
source: Müller (1879)
source: Zahlbruckner (1905, 1907)
[Cenomyce pyxidata (L.) Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. delicata Desm., Cenomyce pyxidata var. pyxidata Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. tuberculosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Cladonia communis Schaer., Cladonia conchata Nyl., Cladonia neglecta (Flörke) Spreng., Lichen pyxidatus L.]
native, indigenous, fide annotations T. Ahti, 2010 (new to Galapagos, range poorly known): CDS 31086, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Culberson, William, L.... 20551 [DUKE], Aptroot, A. 65699 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64846 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65200 [CDS]