Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi from Galapagos (Ecuador)
Includes taxa from following child checklists:
Authors: *1,2,3,6Frank Bungartz, 2,6Frauke Ziemmeck, 1,3,4Alba Yánez-Ayabaca & 1,5Fredy Nugra

Citation: Bungartz, F., Ziemmeck, F., Yánez-Ayabaca, A. & Nugra, F. (2023) Lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi from Galapagos (Ecuador). Consortium of Lichen Herbaria. Symbiota Checklist, published online at https://lichenportal.org/portal/checklists/checklist.php?clid=1278&pid

Locality: Galapagos, Ecuador

Abstract:

1Grupo Ecuatoriano de Liquenología (GEL), Ecuador
2Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands, Puerto Ayora, Ecuador
3Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INABIO), Quito, Ecuador
4Universidad Central de Quito, Ecuador
5Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador
6Biodiversity Integration Knowledge Center, Arizona State University, PO Box 874108, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4108, USA

*corresponding author: frank.bungartz@asu.edu

Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi from Galapagos (Ecuador):
This checklist includes all species (including subspecies, varieties, or forms) of lichen-forming fungi currently known from the Galapagos. The list further includes some fungi typically associated with lichens (lichenicolous fungi, i.e., fungi parasitic or parasymbiontic on lichens), or often treated by lichenologists even though they are not lichenized (i.e., allied fungi). The checklist is a result of the ongoing Galapagos Lichen Inventory, supported by the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands (CDF) and the Directorate of the Galapagos National Park (DPNG). First versions of this checklists were successively published by the CDF dataZone. More recent updates are made available here as part of Ecuador's national biodiversity assessment program ‘Biodiversidad Genética del Ecuador’, led by the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad del Ecuador (INABIO). For all species included in this checklists we provide preliminary assessment of their origin. Examples of lichen species introduced to the islands as a result of human activities remain unknown and all species are here considered native. Most of these species are indigenous, i.e., native but not exclusively found in the archipelago only. Others are currently known only from the Galapagos; they may be considered endemic or in some cases questionably endemic. An assessment of their threat status using IUCN red-list criteria is currently under way.

Additional contributors to this Checklist include:
André Aptroot, Othmar Breuss, Philippe Clerc, Carolina Cornejo, Paul Diederich, Damien Ertz, Tassilo Feuerer, Marusa Herrera, Kerry Knudsen, James Lawrey, Robert Lücking, Bibiana Moncado, Christian Parrinello, Matthias Schultz, Harrie Sipman, Adriano Spielman, Ulrik Søchting, Anders Tehler, Leif Tibell, Camille Truong, William A. Weber, and Martin Westberg.

Please click here to download the Reference List as a PDF.

This is the version #08 of this checklist, which can be downloaded as PDF here.

Download previous versions published by the CDF dataZone here:

CDF Version #1 (2011-Jul-07)
CDF Version #2 (2012-Nov-18)
CDF Version #3 (2013-May-23)
CDF Version #4 (2013-Jun-06)
CDF Version #5 (2013-Sep-19)
CDF Version #6 (2013-Dec-03)
CDF Version #7 (2016-09-29)

Notes: last updated 7 March 2023


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Families: 66
Genera: 222
Species: 791
Total Taxa: 795

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[Acarospora cinereoalba Fink ex H. Magn., Acarospora superfusca H. Magn.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Knudsen (2012); Bungartz, F. 10378 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64834 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Knudsen (2012); Aptroot, A. 64801 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4764 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65104 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64806 [CDS]
[Phaeophyscia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Hafellner, Physcia opuntiella Buschardt & Poelt]
[Agonimiella pacifica H. Harada]
native, indigenous, source: Diederich et al. (1997); Bungartz, F. 4999 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7303 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64320 [CDS]
[Acarospora fuscata f. tristicula (Nyl.) H. Magn., Acrocordia tristicula (Nyl.) A. Massal., Polyblastia tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold, Sporodictyon tristiculum (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Verrucaria tristicula Nyl.]
[Agyrium rufum var. pallens Fr., Agyrium rufum var. rufum (Pers.) Fr., Biatora grumosa (Leight.) Walt. Watson, Lecidea grumosa Leight., Stictis rufa Pers., Xylographa parallela f. pallescens Fr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, non-lichenized saprophytic fungus, compare with Xylographa
[Graphina cleistomma (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphis cleistomma Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Aptroot, A. 65039 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4023 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4108 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65636 [CDS], more...
[Allographa apoda (Eschw.) Lücking & Kalb, Graphina illinata (Eschw.) M. Wirth & Hale, Graphis apoda (Zahlbr.) Lücking, Graphis illinata Eschw., Graphis illinata var. apoda Zahlbr., Graphis illinata var. illinata Eschw.]
native, indigenous; Moncada, B. 8467 [CDS]
[Graphis leptospora Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 7818 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7073 [CDS]
[Graphina macella (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Graphis macella Kremp.]
native, indigenous; Dal-Forno, M. 1168 [CDS]
[Graphis subchrysocarpa Lücking, Phaeographis ochracea C.W. Dodge]
native, indigenous, In Weber (1993) as Phaeographina chrysocarpa, source: Bungartz et al. (2009), Weber (1993); Bungartz, F. 5798 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5812 [CDS]
[Graphis pedunculata Bungartz & Aptroot]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 5701 [CDS 28799], source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Aptroot, A. 65665 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65686 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4701 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4801 A [CDS]
[Graphis xanthospora Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Dal-Forno, M. 1163 [CDS]
[Opegrapha betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. betulina Pers., Opegrapha betulina var. conferta Erichsen, Opegrapha betulina var. herbarum (Mont.) Redinger, Opegrapha culmigena Lib., Opegrapha herbarum Mont., Opegrapha prosodeoides Vain., Opegrapha turneri Leight.]
[Alyxoria diaphora (Ach.) Gray, Alyxoria notha (Ach.) Gray, Graphis notha (Ach.) Trevis., Graphis varia (Pers.) Branth & Rostr., Lichen nothus Ach., Lichen signatus Ach., Opegrapha chlorina Pers., Opegrapha diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. herbicola Nyl., Opegrapha diaphora f. signata (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora f. tigrina (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. mexicana B. de Lesd. ex Ruiz{?}, Opegrapha diaphora var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. stellata Sántha, Opegrapha diaphora var. tigrina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. tridens (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. cerebrina (Erichsen) J. Nowak, Opegrapha lichenoides f. chlorina (Pers.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides f. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. octomera Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides f. populina (Moug.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha lichenoides var. cerebrina Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. chlorina (Pers.) Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides var. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides var. populina (Moug.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. subchondrina Redinger, Opegrapha notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. populina Moug., Opegrapha notha var. spaniota Ach., Opegrapha pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrader, Opegrapha pulicaris f. lutescens (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha pulicaris f. minuta (Chevall.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. phaea (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pollinii (A. Massal.) Redinger, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrad., Opegrapha rimalis Pers. ex Ach., Opegrapha rimalis var. betulina H. Olivier, Opegrapha rimalis var. rimalis Ach., Opegrapha signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. beta Ach., Opegrapha signata var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. tigrina Ach., Opegrapha tridens Ach., Opegrapha varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. pulicaris, Opegrapha varia f. varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. xanthocarpa Zwackh, Opegrapha varia var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha varia var. diaphora (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. glomerulans Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. heterocarpa Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. lichenoides (Pers.) Hepp, Opegrapha varia var. notha (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. phaea (Ach.) Rabenh., Opegrapha varia var. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. rimalis (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. varia, Scaphis notha (Ach.) Eschw.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9135 [CDS]
[Buellia xylographella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecidea xylographella Nyl.]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 63024 [CDS]
[Ditremis albiseda (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria viridiseda f. albiseda Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1987); Bungartz, F. 3646 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63017 [CDS]
[Acrocordia biformis (Borrer) Arnold, Acrocordia conformis (Nyl.) Hellb., Amphisphaeria biformis (Borrer) Rehm, Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia biformis f. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis f. microcarpa Erichsen, Arthopyrenia biformis var. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis var. macrocarpa (Körb.) Keissl., Arthopyrenia byssacea (Taylor) A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. rhypontoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia parvula Zahlbr., Ditremis biformis (Borrer) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea biformis (Borrer) Trevis., Pharcidia thallophila (Cooke) Vouaux, Sagedia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Segestrella biformis (Borrer) Branth & Rostr., Sphaerella thallophila (Cooke) Cooke, Sphaeria thallophila Cooke, Thelidium biformis (Borrer) Mudd, Trimmatothele umbellulariae Herre, Verrucaria biformis Borrer, Verrucaria byssacea Taylor, Verrucaria conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. rhypontoides Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1978); Bungartz, F. 4233 A [CDS]
[Arthopyrenia adnexa var. leptosperma Zahlbr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1995); Bungartz, F. 4150 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4147 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4076 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65078 [CDS], more...
[Anisomeridium juistense (Erichsen) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium willeyanum (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris, Apiospora polypori Ellis & Everh., Arthopyrenia willeyana R.C. Harris, Ditremis nyssogena [as 'nyssaegena'] (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris 1990, Paraphysothele juistensis (Erichsen) Servít, Thelidium juistense Erichsen, Zignoëlla nyssogena Ellis & Everh.]
[Arthopyrenia subprostans (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Ditremis subprostans (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea subprostans (Nyl.) Trevis., Pyrenula subprostans (Nyl.) Tuck., Verrucaria subprostans Nyl.]
native, indigenous, source: Harris (1980); Aptroot, A. 65520 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64876 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65624 [CDS]
[Ditremis tamarindi (Fée) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea tamarindi (Fée) Trevis., Porina tamarindi (Fée) Müll.Arg., Verrucaria tamarindi Fée]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1980); Aptroot, A. 65066 [CDS], Miranda, R. 969 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63049 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9524 [CDS]
[Anisomeridium tuckeri R.C. Harris, Ditremis tuckerae (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, original spelling as A. tuckeri is incorrect; species named after S.C. Tucker, correct spelling therefore: A. tuckerae, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998); Aptroot, A. 63031 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63042 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3801 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3798 [CDS], more...
[Catenata antillarum (Fée) Bat., Coniocarpon antillarum Fée]
preliminary identification, Galapagos specimens identified as A. antillarum and A. parantillarum appear to have a chemistry not identical to what has been reported for these two species; the groups requires more research; Aptroot, A. 63007 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3390 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3771 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11684 [CDS], more...
[Arthoniopsis cyanea (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg.]
native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 7080 A [CDS]
problematic, name not resolved; only known from the type; Holotype BRIST [colln Darbishire], Hill Jun. 1872, source: Follmann & Werner (2003)
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Roccella, native, indigenous, problematic, name not resolved; only known from the type; Holotype KOELN 34537, source: Diedrich (1995), Elix & McCarthy (1998)
preliminary identification, Weber (1986) doubts this determination, source: Wiley (1890), Weber (1986)
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: Galapagos specimens identified as A. antillarum and A. parantillarum appear to have a chemistry not identical to what has been reported for these two species; the groups requires more research, source: Aptroot (2003); Bungartz, F. 3383 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6143 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65384 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6341 [CDS], more...
problematic, name not resolved, no modern record, source: Nylander (1863)
preliminary identification, Weber (1986) erroneously reports the species as endemic, even though the protologue in Nylander (1863, p. 480, footnote no. 1) cites a specimen from Mexico near Tampico, collected on Rhiozophora mangle by Uzac, which must be considered the type. Zahlbruckner, A. Catalogus Lichenum Universalis 2: 75 (1923–1924) further reports the from the Antilles, Mexico, and Florida; Galapagos material is possibly identical with either Arthonia antillarum or A. parantillarum (FH 197370, 197374, 197375, 197380); Galapagos: Hassler Expedition (Willey 1890); Gardner: Snodgrass & Heller (Farlow 1902); check fluorescence, both A. antillarum and A. parantillarum are younger names and depending on UV reaction might have to be reduced to synonymy, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), Nylander (1863), Stewart (1912), Weber (1966, 1981, 1986)
[Arthothelium sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr.]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 64733 [CDS]
[Arthopyrenia crombiei A.L. Sm., Endophis cerasi (Schrad.) Norman, Metasphaeria cerasi (Schrad.) Vain., Opegrapha cerasi (Schrad.) Flörke, Pseudosagedia cerasi (Schrad.) M. Choisy, Pyrenula cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Spermatodium cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Verrucaria cerasi Schrad.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Massal (1852); Aptroot, A. 65052 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65061 B [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Santa Cruz, Academy Bay about 0.5 mi E of Darwin Station, on rock, 20-Feb-1964, Weber, W.A. s.n. (B–22064 – holotype designated by Huneck & Follmann 1969; COLO 185868 (L-39131) – isotype!; further isotypes also distributed as Weber, Lich. Exs. [Boulder (Colorado)] no. 113), source: Huneck & Follmann (1969), Weber (1981, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63729 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63260 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63273 [CDS], more...
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 65316 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9672 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65327 [CDS]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: in Weber (1986) erronously cited as Aspidophyllum fugiens; material Weber 285 (L-40433). The material was originally determined by Vezda, but with publication of Lücking (2008) the species concept has changed; the Galapagos specimens has perithecia with disk-like, dentate expansion and not setae or hairs and thus belongs to A. scutellicarpum., source: Weber (1986), Lücking (2008), Elix & McCarthy (1998)
[Pseudopyrenula aenea (Eschw.) Vain., Pseudopyrenula heterochroa (Mont.) Vain., Pyrenula heterochroa (Mont.) Trevis., Segestria heterochroa (Mont.) Trevis., Spermatodium croceum Trevis., Trypethelium aeneum (Eschw.) Zahlbr., Verrucaria heterochroa Mont.]
[Bathelium feei (C.F.W. Meissn.) Aptroot, Trypethelium feei C.F.W. Meissn., Trypethelium mastoideum var. macerum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium scoria var. feei (C.F.W. Meissn.) Trevis.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Aptroot et al. (2016); Aptroot, A. 64713 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63754 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64241 [CDS], Clerc, P. 08-136 [CDS], more...
[Pseudopyrenula neglecta Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula nitidiuscula (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium catervarium auct., Trypethelium catervarium var. catervarium (Fée) Tuck., Trypethelium nitidiusculum (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria nitidiuscula Nyl.]
[Bathelium duplex (Fée) C.W. Dodge, Bathelium subalbens (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge, Melanotheca duplex (Fée) Müll. Arg., Phyllopyrenia tessellata C.W. Dodge, Pseudopyrenula catervaria (Fée) Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula duplex (Fée) Vain., Pseudopyrenula ochroleuca (Eschw.) Vain., Pseudopyrenula tessella (Pers.) P.W. Graff, Pyrenula catervaria (Fée) A. Massal., Spermatodium catervarium (Fée) Trevis., Spermatodium ochroleucum (Eschw.) Trevis., Trypethelium cascarillae Müll.Arg., Trypethelium duplex Fée, Trypethelium duplex f. duplex Fée, Trypethelium euporum Kremp., Trypethelium leprieurii Mont., Trypethelium leprosum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. depauperatum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl., Trypethelium ochroleucum var. pallescens (Fée) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium pallescens Fée, Trypethelium phlyctaena Fée, Trypethelium quassiicola Fée, Trypethelium subalbens Nyl., Trypethelium triplex Nyl., Verrucaria catervaria Fée, Verrucaria decolorata Fée, Verrucaria ochroleuca Eschw., Verrucaria tessellata (C.W.Dodge) Øvstedal]
[Pseudopyrenula annularis var. tuberculosa Vain., Trypethelium crassum var. tuberculosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Trypethelium tuberculosum (Vain.) R.C. Harris]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: thallus reacts K+ yellow, slowly orange red; according to Aptroot & Lücking (2016) this reaction is probably not caused by secondary metabolites; the Galapagos specimens still need to be analyzed by TLC, source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Aptroot & Lücking (2016); Aptroot, A. 63139 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63147 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64663 [CDS], Nugra, F. 73 [CDS], more...
[Bathelium papillosum (Ach.) C.W. Dodge, Trypethelium papillosum var. fuscum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium variolosum Ach.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: According to Harris (1995) Trypethelium ochroleucum and Astrothelium variosolum are identical in all characters but their stromata formation; Trypethelium nitidiusculum is identical to Trypothelium ochroleucum in all characters but the presence of lichexanthone. According to Aptroot et al. (2016) all three species are distinct and treated in the genus Astrothelium., source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Harris (1995); Bungartz, F. 5815 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4443 [CDS]
native, questionably endem., Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Floreana, Post Office Bay, ad cortices laeves, sine datum, Herre, A.W.C.T. 3155 [W–lectotype selected by Ekman 1996; COLO 183424 (S-10354) – isotype!; also distributed as Keissler, Krypt. Exs. [Wien (Vienna)]: Kryptogamae Exsiccatae Editae A Museo Palatino Vindobonensi no. 3155]; originally described from the Galapagos, but questionably endemic since Fernández-Prado et al. (2022) report it as Bacidia cf. insularis from the continent, source: Weber (1966, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Ekman (1996), Fernández-Prado et al. (2022; as Bacidia cf. insularis); Aptroot, A. 63236 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4486 [CDS], Ertz, D. 12029 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7359 [CDS], more...
[Bacidia chloroticula (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Lecidea chloroticula Nyl., Woessia chloroticula (Nyl.) Puntillo, Bricaud & Sérus.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3668 [CDS]
[Bacidia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Coppins, Lecidea effusa var. delicata Larbal. ex Leight., Woessia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Sérus. & Diederich]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, preliminary, material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 63784 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65036 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63871 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65204 [CDS], more...
[Bacidia pallidocarnea (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria pallidocarnea Müll.Arg.]
[Microthelia thelena (Ach.) Trev., Mycomicrothelia thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw., Pyrenula thelena (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria thelena Ach.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998) Weber (1993); Bungartz, F. 9651 [CDS]
[Biatora leucoxantha (Spreng.) Bél., Heterothecium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) A. Massal., Lecidea leucoxantha Spreng., Lopadium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. sorediatum Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. albidius Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. ussuriense Oxner, Miltidea leucoxantha (Spreng.) Stirt., Patellaria leucoxantha (Spreng.) Spreng., Sporopodium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpa Räsänen, Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpum Räsänen, Xanthocarpia leucoxantha (Spreng.) C. Müll.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: the Galapagos material is densely diffusely sorediate across the entire thallus and therefore not B. leucoxantha s.str.; the specimen collected by Pike (COLO L-55433) examined by J. Hafellner 1983 identified as B. leucoxantha is also densely sorediate., source: Bungartz & et al. (2013c), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: originally described from the Falkland Islands (in Fryday & Øvstedal 2012); morphologically and anatomically the Galapagos material is identical to the Falkland specimens; the chemistry of the type and Galapagos material was analyzed by J.A. Elix, who found 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid in both, source: Fryday & Øvstedal (2012)
[Lecidea dejungens Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9858 [CDS]
[Buellia disciformis var. cinereoferruginea (C. Knight) Zahlbr., Buellia disciformis var. vulgata (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier, Buellia disciformis var. wilsonii Räsänen, Buellia parasema de Not., Buellia parasema f. parasema De Not., Buellia parasema f. vulgata (Th. Fr.) Arnold, Buellia parasema subsp. parasema De Not., Buellia parasema subsp. vulgata (Th. Fr.) Hasse, Buellia parasema var. disciformis (Fr.) Th. Fr., Buellia parasema var. polyspora Imshaug ined., Buellia parasema var. triphragmia (Nyl.) Th. Fr., Buellia parasema var. vulgata Th. Fr., Hafellia disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer, Lecidea disciformis var. cinereoferruginea C. Knight, Lecidea parasema var. disciformis Fr., Lecidea punctata f. disciformis (Fr.) Hepp]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9866 [CDS]
[Baeomyces capensis Taylor, Diploicia capensis (Taylor) C.W. Dodge, Lecidea halonia Ach.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63269 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5381 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3756 [CDS]
[Buellia australica Räsänen, Buellia glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana f. albinea Räsänen, Buellia glaziouana f. glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana var. glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana var. poliocheila (Vain.) Imshaug, Buellia glaziouana var. sensitiva (Zahlbr.) Imshaug, Buellia thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug comb. inval., Rinodina mamillana Tuck., Rinodina thomae Tuck.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986)
[Diplotomma oidaleum (Tuck.) Szatala, Lecidea oidalea Nyl., Rhizocarpon oidaleum (Nyl.) Fink]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 6209 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6223 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6458 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6363 [CDS], more...
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Ertz, D. 11599 [CDS]
[Buellia amblyogona Müll. Arg., Buellia exilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia italica A. Massal., Buellia italica var. debanensis Bagl., Buellia italica var. italica A. Massal., Buellia italica var. recobarina A. Massal., Buellia italica var. tumida A. Massal., Buellia krempelhuberi Zahlbr., Buellia lactea (A. Massal.) Körb., Buellia lactea var. cinerea Zahlbr., Buellia lactea var. lactea (A. Massal.) Körb., Buellia liguriensis B. de Lesd., Buellia olivaceofusca (Anzi) Zahlbr., Buellia recobarina (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg., Buellia spuria var. amblyogona (Müll. Arg.) Elix, Buellia spuria var. insularis (A. Massal.) Jatta, Buellia spuria var. spuria (Schaer.) Anzi, Catolechia lactea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Catolechia recobarina A. Massal., Lecidea contigua var. lactea Schaer., Lecidea spuria Schaer., Lecidea spuria var. spuria Schaer.]
[Lecidea spuria var. minutula Hepp, Lecidea stellulata Taylor, Lecidea stellulata f. albosparsa Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. hybrida Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. murina Stizenb., Lecidea stellulata f. protothallina Kremp., Lecidea stellulata f. stellulata Taylor]
[Buellia xanthinula auct. non (Müll. Arg.) Malme]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Hill, T. ex 3352 [FH 197151], source: Dodge (1936), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), Imshaug (1955), Stewart (1912), Weber (1966), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63279 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5318 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5195 [CDS], more...
[Buellia disciformis subsp. subdisciformis (Leight.) Vain., Buellia disciformis var. subdisciformis (Leight.) H. Olivier, Buellia meiosperma (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Buellia ryssolea (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia subdisciformis var. meiosperma (Nyl.) J. Steiner, Lecidea meiosperma Nyl., Lecidea ryssolea Leight., Lecidea subdisciformis Leight., Lecidea subdisciformis var. meiosperma (Nyl.) Leight.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3885 [CDS]
native, questionably endem., Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Isabela, Volcán Alcedo, upper NNW-exposed slope inside the crater, 0°27’S, 91°7’W, 1055 m, open vegetation with Adianthus concinnum and scattered shrubs of Tournefortia rufosericea among basalt blocks in the vicinity of the sulfur vents, on basalt, Mar-2006, Aptroot 64881[CDS 31458 – holotype!, hb. Aptroot – isotype), source: Lumbsch et al. (2011); Bungartz, F. 8164 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8169 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8732 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64881 [CDS], more...
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013a); Bungartz, F. 8544 [CDS]
[Parmelia marginalis Lynge, Parmelia marginalis var. marginalis Lynge, Parmelia njalensis C.W. Dodge, Parmelia scortella Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: only one specimen (Aptroot 65313) has a brown lower side throughout., source: Bungartz et al. (2013a); Aptroot, A. 65313 [CDS]
[Bulbothrix lobarica Jungbluth, Marcelli & Elix, Parmelia lobarica Junbluth, Marcelli & Elix, Parmelia subdissecta Nyl.]
[Pilocarpon chlorinum Vain.]
native, indigenous; Nugra, F. 909 B [CDS]
[Pilocarpon discordans Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Rivas Plata, E. 4084 [CDS], Spielmann, A.A. 8153 C [CDS]
[Bacidia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold ex P. James, Bacidia leucoblepharia var. leucoblepharia (Nyl.) Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bilimbia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Bilimbia leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea leucoblephara Nyl., Patellaria leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. fuscopallida Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. obscuratum Zahlbr., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. chloroticum Samp., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. poichilum Vain.]
[Bacidia leucoloma (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bacidia subternella (Nyl.) R. Sant., Biatorella conspersa f. leucoloma (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia sprucei (C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg.) Riddle, Catillaria subternella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Fellhanera subternella (Nyl.) Vězda, Lecanora sprucei C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg., Lecidea leucoloma (Müll.Arg.) Stizenb., Lecidea sprucei (C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg.) Nyl., Lecidea subternella Nyl., Microphiale sprucei (C. Bab. ex Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria leucoloma Müll.Arg., Patellaria sprucei Müll.Arg.]
[Bacidia leucoblepharia var. rupicola Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bacidia rotuliformis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia leucoblephara var. rupicola Wheldon & A. Wilson, Byssoloma rotulifomre (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant., Byssoloma rotuliforme (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant., Chiodecton subdiscordans Nyl., Patellaria rotuliformis Müll.Arg.]
[Biatora tricholoma Mont., Bilimbia tricholoma (Mont.) Fink]
native, indigenous, searched for specimen in COLO, but not found: COLO (L-63764), coll.: Lanier, in packet with Tapellaria epiphylla, det.: Vezda, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 10453 [CDS]
[Phlyctidium phyllogenum Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 10054 E [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Nugra, F. 230 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64525 B [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 8489 [CDS 41135], source: Lumbsch et al. (2011); Bungartz, F. 7295 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8489 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5480 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9653 [CDS]
[Heterothecium perpallidum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Heterothecium perpallidum var. monosporum Müll.Arg., Heterothecium perpallidum var. perpallidum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea perpallida Nyl., Lopadium perpallidum (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
[Heterothecium phyllogenum Müll.Arg., Lecidea phyllogena (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Lopadium phyllogenum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Lopadium phyllogenum var. phyllogenum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr.]
[Placodium cupuliferum Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020b); Aptroot, A. 63720 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9908 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5981 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6062 [CDS], more...
[Blastenia floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Callopisma floridanum (Tuck.) Müll.Arg., Callopisma floridanum var. floridanum (Tuck.) Müll.Arg., Lecanora floridana Tuck., Placodium floridanum (Tuck.) Tuck.]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 6170 A [CDS 34382], source: Bungartz et al. (2020b); Bungartz, F. 6170 A [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6093 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65023 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, first published as nomen nudum by M. Westberg in Nash et al. (2002), then validated in M. Westb. & Arup, Bibl. Lich. 106: 358 (2011)., source: Nash & et al. (2002) Westberg & Arup (2011); Bungartz, F. 4107 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10361 [CDS]
[Caloplaca reflexa (Nyl.) Flagey, Candelaria reflexa (Nyl.) Arnold, Gyalolechia reflexa (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecanora reflexa (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecanora vitellina var. reflexa Nyl.]
[Parmelia cryptochlorophaea Hale, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Hale]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Ertz, D. 11810 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7605 [CDS], Spielmann, A.A. 10712 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8552 [CDS], more...
[Parmelia sublaevigata var. texana (Tuck.) Nyl., Parmelia texana Tuck., Pseudoparmelia texana (Tuck.) Hale]
[Biatorina baliola (Nyl.) Hellb., Biatorina chalybeia subsp. chloroscotina (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Biatorina lenticularis f. chloropoliza (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatorina lenticularis var. chloropoliza (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Catillaria chalybeia var. chloropoliza (Nyl.) H. Kilias, Catillaria chloroscotina (Nyl.) Arnold, Catillaria lenticularis f. chloropoliza Boistel, Lecidea baliola Nyl., Lecidea chloropoliza (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea chloroscotina Nyl., Lecidea lenticularis f. chloropoliza Nyl., Lecidea spodoplaca f. baliola (Nyl.) Hue, Patellaria baliola (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63724 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10001 [CDS]
[Biatora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hepp, Biatorina atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. microspora Arnold, Bilimbia atropurpurea (Schaer.) Branth & Rostr., Catillaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. ecrustacea Szatala, Catillaria atropurpurea f. gyaliza (Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria atropurpurea f. microspora (Arnold) H. Olivier, Catillaria atropurpurea subsp. neuschildii (Körb.) Th. Fr., Lecanora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hedl., Lecidea atropurpurascens Nyl., Lecidea atropurpurea (Schaer.) Leight., Lecidea intermixta Nyl., Lecidea intermixta var. lignaria Nyl., Lecidea sphaeroides var. atropurpurea Schaer., Patellaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Müll. Arg.]
[Leptorhaphis dominicana Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 64343 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 65086 [CDS]
[Lepraria xanthina Vain.]
native, indigenous, In Weber (1986) as Chrysothrix candelaris, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c), Kalb (2001), Knudsen & Bungartz (2013), Benítez et al. (2019); Aptroot, A. 63053 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5391 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6083 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3633 [CDS], more...
[Cenomyce australis Pers., Cenomyce diatrypa Taylor, Cenomyce terebrata Laurer, Cladia collodes (Hook. f. & Taylor) C.W. Dodge, Cladia taylorii C.W. Dodge, Cladonia aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata f. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata f. cetrarioides Hellb., Cladonia aggregata f. subdivergens Hellb., Cladonia aggregata subsp. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata subsp. neutra Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata subsp. subminiata Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. aggregata (Sw.) Spreng., Cladonia aggregata var. cetrarioides (Hellb.) Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. straminea Müll.Arg., Cladonia aggregata var. subdivergens (Hellb.) Räsänen, Cladonia aggregata var. tenera F. Wilson, Cladonia australis (Pers.) Sambo, Cladonia cornicularia Flörke, Cladonia gorgonea var. subrangiferina Nyl., Cladonia gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina f. decumbens Abbayes, Cladonia gorgonina f. gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. gorgonina (Bory) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. subrangiferina (Nyl.) Vain., Cladonia gorgonina var. turgidior (Nyl.) Vain., Cladonia neocaledonica Räsänen, Cladonia terebrata (Laurer) Flörke, Coralloides gorgonina Bory, Dufourea collodes Hook. f. & Taylor, Lichen aggregatus Sw., Stereocaulon aggregatum (Sw.) Raeusch.]
native, indigenous, source: Ahti (2000), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1981, 1986), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63205 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3971 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11709 [CDS], more...
[Cladina arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & Culb., Cladonia sylvatica (L.) Rab., Cladonia sylvatica f. caerulescens Schade, Cladonia sylvatica f. decumbens Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. fissa Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. gigantea (Bory) Vain., Cladonia sylvatica f. grandis Flörke, Cladonia sylvatica f. inactiva Asahina, Cladonia sylvatica f. penicillata Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. polycarpia Plk.{?}, Cladonia sylvatica f. pygmaea Sandst., Cladonia sylvatica f. sphagnoides (Hepp) Parrique, Cladonia sylvatica f. subspumosa Coem., Cladonia sylvatica f. turgida Anders, Cladonia sylvatica var. eusylvatica Kugan{?}, Cladonia sylvatica var. laevigata Vain., Cladonia sylvatica var. pycnoclada (Pers.) Pers., Cladonia sylvatica var. scabrosa Leight.]
[Cladina arbuscula subsp. boliviana (Ahti) Ahti, Cladina boliviana (Ahti) Ahti, Cladonia boliviana Ahti]
native, indigenous, specimens in H and LSU: Isabela, Volcán Alcedo, 1970, Prichard s.n., source: Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 8338 [CDS]
[Cladina arcuata (Ahti) Ahti & Follmann]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 5744 [CDS 33396]; IUCN: Critical B2a, b(ii, iii), D, (preliminary assessment), source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 5744 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5749 [CDS]
[Cenomyce chlorophaea Flörke ex Sommerf., Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) V. Wirth, Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke]
[Cladina alpestroides Abbayes, Rev. Bryol. Lichénol., N.S. 16: 79 (1947), Cladina confusa (R. Sant.) Follmann & Ahti, Cladina galapagosensis (Ahti) W.A. Weber, Cladina leptoclada (Abbayes) D.J. Galloway, Cladina pohlia (R. Sant.) W.A. Weber, Cladina pycnoclada subsp. thyrsifera Nyl., Cladina sylvatica f. sylvestris (Oeder) Navás, Brotéria, sér. bot. 11: 24, tab. VI, fig. 1 (1913), Cladonia alpestroides Abbayes, Cladonia fallax f. exalbescens (Vain.) Abbayes, Cladonia impexa f. exalbescens (Vain.) Abbayes, Cladonia impexa f. thyrsifera (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia leptoclada Abbayes, Cladonia leptoclada f. leptoclada Abbayes, Cladonia leptoclada f. thyrsifera (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia pycnoclada f. exalbescens Vain., Cladonia pycnoclada var. exalbescens Vain., Cladonia sylvatica var. sylvestris (Oeder) Vain., Lichen rangiferinus var. sylvestris Oeder]
[Cladina confusa f. bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Ahti, Cladonia bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Ahti, Cladonia fallax f. bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Abbayes, Cladonia pohlia R. Sant., Cladonia polia R. Sant. (orthographic error), Cladonia rangiferina f. bicolor Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, Bungartz: distributed as exsiccate of Cladonia polia (Weber, Lich. Exs. 106; see Weber 1981; the correct spelling of the epithet is pohlia), synonymized by Ahti (2000) with Cladina confusa f. bicolor, source: Ahti (2000), Weber (1981), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Luong, T.T. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64674 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3986 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11797 [CDS], more...
native, indigenous, source: Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 8334 [CDS]
native, indigenous, fide annotations T. Ahti, 2010, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Aptroot, A. 63384 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65262 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65721 [CDS]
[Cladonia dactylota var. dactylota Tuck., Cladonia dactylota var. sorediata Tuck., Cladonia dactylota var. symphycarpia Tuck., Cladonia sorediosocapitata B. de Lesd.]
[Cladonia abietiformis Harm., Cladonia congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. subfarinosa H. Magn., Cladonia didyma f. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia didyma f. subulata Sandst., Cladonia didyma subsp. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. muscigena (Eschw.) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. rugifera Vain., Cladonia didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vain., Cladonia isidioclada Mont. & Bosch, Cladonia macilenta var. subcarcata Räsänen, Cladonia melanodes Nyl., Cladonia muscigena Eschw., Cladonia pulchella Schwein., Cladonia sphaerulifera Taylor, Cladonia vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Cladonia vulcanica f. isidioclada (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. melanodes (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. minor Robbins, Cladonia vulcanica f. vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Scyphophorus didymus Fée]
[Cladonia chlorophaea var. grayi (G. Merr.) P.A. Duvign., Cladonia grayi f. aberrans Asahina, Cladonia pyxidata subsp. grayi (G. Merr. ex Sandst.) V. Wirth]
[Cenomyce bacillaris (Ach.) Ach., Cladonia bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. mucronata (Delise) M. Choisy, Cladonia bacillaris f. nana Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris f. pityropoda Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. subscyphifera Vain., Cladonia bacillaris f. tingens Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris subsp. bacillaris, Cladonia bacillaris var. bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris var. elegantor Vain., Cladonia bacillaris var. pacifica Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris var. tubaeformis (Mudd) M. Choisy, Cladonia balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii f. balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii f. chlorophaeoides (Vain.) Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. cornigera (Vain.) Oxner, Cladonia balfourii f. squamulosa A. Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. subprolifera (Vain.) A. Evans, Cladonia brebissonii var. ostreata (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Cladonia coccifera f. macilenta (Hoffm.) Mudd, Cladonia coccifera f. subulata Hoffm., Cladonia cylindrica var. squamigera (Vain.) M. Choisy, Cladonia cylindrica var. vermicularis (Rabenh.) M. Choisy, Cladonia fimbriata f. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia fimbriata var. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia floerkeana var. bacillaris (Leight.) Lynge, Cladonia macilenta f. squamigera (Vain.) Sandst., Cladonia macilenta subsp. bacillaris Ach., Cladonia macilenta var. flabellulata Müll.Arg., Cladonia macilenta var. ostreata Nyl., Cladonia macilenta var. scabrosa (Mudd) Cromb., Cladonia macilenta var. squamigera Vain., Cladonia ostreata (Nyl.) Britzelm., Scyphophorus filiformis]
native, indigenous, all Galapagos specimens contain thamnolic and didymic acid and specimens previously identified as C. macilenta var. bacillaris are misidentifications of C. bungartzii or C. macilenta s.str. (Yánez-Ayabaca et al. 2000), reported by Weber (1986) as Cladonia macilenta ssp. theiophila (Asahina) Asahina, source: Ahti (2000), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 65100 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4256 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3606 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65202 [CDS], more...
[Cenomyce pyxidata (L.) Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. delicata Desm., Cenomyce pyxidata var. pyxidata Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. tuberculosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Cladonia communis Schaer., Cladonia conchata Nyl., Cladonia neglecta (Flörke) Spreng., Lichen pyxidatus L.]
native, indigenous, fide annotations T. Ahti, 2010 (new to Galapagos, range poorly known): CDS 31086, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Aptroot, A. 65200 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65699 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64846 [CDS]
[Baeomyces anomaeus Ach., Cenomyce pityrea (Flörke) Ach., Cladonia adspersa Mont. & Bosch, Cladonia anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James, Cladonia anomaea var. anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James, Cladonia degenerans var. anomaea (Ach.) Cromb., Cladonia isignyi Delise, Cladonia lamarkii Nyl., Cladonia lamarkii f. isignyi (Delise) Nyl., Cladonia lamarkii f. lamarkii Nyl., Cladonia lepidula var. foliolosa Müll.Arg., Cladonia leucocephala Müll.Arg., Cladonia pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea f. cladomorpha Flörke, Cladonia pityrea f. dilacerata Anders, Cladonia pityrea f. hololepis Flörke, Cladonia pityrea f. macrocephala Asahina, Cladonia pityrea f. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea f. scyphifera (Delise) Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. sorediosa Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. squamulifera Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. subacuta Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. subuliformis Vain., Cladonia pityrea subsp. gracilenta (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia pityrea subsp. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea subsp. polyphylla (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia pityrea var. javanica (Hepp) Zahlbr., Cladonia pityrea var. junghuhniana (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr., Cladonia pityrea var. phyllopoda Vain., Cladonia pityrea var. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea var. subareolata Vain., Cladonia squamosa var. pachypoda Müll.Arg., Lichen ramulosus With.]
[Baeomyces strepsilis Ach.]
native, indigenous, source: Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2013); Aptroot, A. 64681 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4134 [CDS]
[Sclerococcum parmeliae Etayo & Diederich]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Hypotrachyna, Normandina, and Parmotrema, native, indigenous, source: Etayo (2017)
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 8496 [CDS 41142], source: Lumbsch et al. (2011); Bungartz, F. 8496 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6584 [CDS]
[Circinaria erythroxyli (Spreng.) Fée, Coccocarpia aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Mont. & Bosch, Coccocarpia aurantiaca var. aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Mont. & Bosch, Coccocarpia aurantiaca var. furfuracea Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia ciliolata Mont., Coccocarpia cronia var. aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Vain., Coccocarpia incisa Pers., Coccocarpia leucorrhiza Hampe, Coccocarpia parmelioides (Hook.) Tuck. ex M.A. Curtis, Coccocarpia pellita var. mesomorpha Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. parmelioides (Hook. f.) Müll. Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. semiincisa Müll.Arg., Lecidea erythroxyli Spreng., Lecidea parmelioides Hook. f., Pannaria aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Schwend., Pannaria ciliolata (Mont.) Hue, Pannaria molybdaea var. incisa (Pers.) Tuck., Pannaria parmelioides (Hook. f.) Colmeiro, Pannaria parmelioides var. parmelioides (Hook. f.) Colmeiro, Pannaria parmelioides var. pyrrhichocarpa Hue, Solorina aurantiaca Hook. f. & Taylor]
native, indigenous, 2 specimens in COLO: 40290, Santa Cruz, Stewart, 1912, det. Dodge 1935 & Santiago, Pike 2718, det. Arvidsson, source: Dodge (1935), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber et al. (1986); Bungartz, F. 9572 [CDS]
[Coccocarpia cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia f. cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia f. palumbina (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. camporum (Malme) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. furfuracea (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. incisa (Pers.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. isidiophylla (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. lividorufa (Meyen & Flot.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. prolificans (Malme) C.W. Dodge, Coccocarpia cronia var. subaurantiaca (Taylor) Vain., Coccocarpia pellita var. isidiophylla Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. isidiosa Müll.Arg., Lecidea palmicola Spreng., Pannaria molybdaea var. cronia (Tuck.) Tuck., Parmelia cronia Tuck.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63094 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63137 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3929 [CDS], more...
[Dimerella flava Malcolm & Vězda]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 5011 B [CDS]
[Biatora lutea (Dicks.) Hepp, Biatorina lutea (Dicks.) Körb., Biatorinopsis lutea (Dicks.) Müll. Arg., Dimerella lutea (Dickson) Trevisan, Dimerella lutea f. lutea (Dicks.) Trevis., Gyalecta lutea (Dicks.) Hornem., Lecidea lutea (Dicks.) Taylor, Lecidea lutea var. eximia Nyl., Lecidea lutea var. lutea (Dicks.) Taylor, Lichen luteus Dicks., Microphiale lutea (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. foliicola Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. lutea (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. stenospora Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. theae Räsänen, Secoliga lutea (Dicks.) Norman]
[Biatorinopsis minima Müll.Arg., Dimerella minima (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant., Microphiale minima (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 64553 [CDS]
[Collema gwytheri Stirt., Collema microptychium Tuck., Synechoblastus leptaleus (Tuck.) Fink, Synechoblastus microptychius (Tuck.) Fink]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz (2008); Bungartz, F. 5571 [CDS], Nugra, F. 200 [CDS], Nugra, F. 220 [CDS]
[Collema pulchellum Ach., Leptogium pulcellum (Ach.) Nyl., Leptogium pulchellum (Ach.) Nyl., Parmelia pulcella (Ach.) Spreng., Parmelia pulchella (Ach.) Spreng., Parmelia pulchella var. pulchella (Ach.) Spreng.]
[Collema laciniatum Nyl., Collema laciniatum var. crustosa Räsänen, Collema laciniatum var. laciniatum Nyl., Synechoblastus laciniatus (Nyl.) Fink, Synechoblastus texanus (Tuck.) Müll.Arg.]
[Arthonia cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr., Arthonia cinnabarina f. concolor (Turner) Leight., Arthonia cinnabarina f. dubia (Turner & Borrer) Leight., Arthonia cinnabarina f. kermesina (Schaer.) Nyl., Arthonia cinnabarina f. microstigma (Turner & Borrer) Leight., Arthonia cinnabarina var. anerythrea Nyl., Arthonia cinnabarina var. astroidea (Leight.) Leight., Arthonia cinnabarina var. coccinea (Flörke) Zahlbr., Arthonia cinnabarina var. kermesina (Schaer.) Nyl., Arthonia cinnabarina var. marginata (Turner) Mudd, Arthonia cinnabarina var. nudata (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Arthonia cinnabarina var. pruinata Delise, Arthonia cinnabarina var. purpurea (Eschw.) Zahlbr., Arthonia cinnabarina var. tumidula (Ach.) Wallr., Arthonia cinnabarina var. tumidulla (Ach.) Wallr., Arthonia gregaria (Weigel) Körb., Arthonia gregaria f. concolor (Turner) Willey, Arthonia gregaria f. gregaria Fée, Arthonia gregaria var. adspersa (Mont.) Müll. Arg., Arthonia gregaria var. anerythrea Nyl., Arthonia gregaria var. astroidea (Leight.) Mudd, Arthonia gregaria var. cuspidans A.L. Sm., Arthonia gregaria var. dubia (Turner & Borrer) Mudd, Arthonia gregaria var. gregaria Fée, Arthonia gregaria var. kermesina (Schaer.) Willey, Arthonia gregaria var. marginata (Turner) Mudd, Arthonia gregaria var. nudata Müll. Arg., Arthonia gregaria var. obscura (Schaer.) Körb., Arthonia gregaria var. pruinata Nyl., Arthonia gregaria var. purpurea (Eschw.) Müll.Arg., Arthonia gregaria var. rufomaculata Räsänen, Arthonia gregaria var. substellata Müll. Arg., Arthonia tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Arthonia tumidula f. astroidea (Leight.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. concolor (Turner) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. glabra (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. kermesina (Schaer.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. opegraphoides (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. opegraphoies (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula f. tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Arthonia tumidula var. coccinea (Flörke) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula var. rubra (Pers.) J. Nowak, Arthonia tumidula var. tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Conioloma coccineum Flörke, Sphaeria gregaria Weigel, Spiloma tumidula Ach., Trachylia gregaria (Weigel) Vain.]
native, indigenous, fide Elix & McCarthy (1998), Arthonia gregaria, fide Weber (1986): 488, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986); Aptroot, A. 63003 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63112 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6224 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6211 [CDS], more...
[Arthopyrenia cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia cinchonae var. cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia nieteriana Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia planipes Müll.Arg., Didymella cinchonae (Ach.) Vain., Leiophloea cinchonae (Ach.) Riedl, Porina concamerata (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Spermatodium cinchonae (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria alboatra var. detergens Nyl., Verrucaria cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. fumida Stizenb., Verrucaria concamerata Stirt., Verrucaria prostans Mont.]
[Arthopyrenia lyrata R.C. Harris]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Harris (1980); Spielmann, A.A. 10483 [CDS], Spielmann, A.A. 10510 [CDS], Spielmann, A.A. 10568 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10359 [CDS], more...
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Yánez-Ayabaca 1547 [CDS 45041] | molecular data, source: Lücking et al. (2016); Bungartz, F. 5594 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1547 [CDS]
[Buellia americana (Fée) Zahlbr., Buellia americana var. americana (Fée) Zahlbr., Buellia modesta (Krempelh.) Müll.Arg., Buellia modesta var. modesta (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia modestula Zahlbr., Lecidea modesta Kremp. nom. illegit., Lecidea parasema var. americana Fée]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 63020 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9976 [CDS]
[Buellia lauri-cassiae (Fée) Müll.Arg., Buellia lauri-cassiae f. lauri-cassiae (Fée) Müll.Arg., Cratiria lauricassiae (Fée) Marbach, Diplotomma lauri-cassiae (Fée) Szatala, Diplotomma lauri-cassiae var. lauri-cassiae (Fée) Szatala, Lecidea lauri-cassiae Fée, Mannia lauri-cassiae (Fée) Trevis.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986)
[Lecanactis flava Vain.]
native, indigenous, source: Aptroot & Sparrius (2008); Bungartz, F. 5089 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63030 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65383 [CDS]
[Lichen auratus (Ach.) Sm., Lobaria aurata (Ach.) Kuntze, Nephroma aurata (Ach.) Pers., Parmelia aurata (Ach.) Eschw., Parmosticta aurata (Ach.) Nyl., Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain., Sticta aurata Mont., Sticta aurata var. abortiva Schaer., Sticta aurata var. angustata Mont., Sticta aurata var. aurata Ach., Sticta aurata var. isidiascens Zahlbr., Sticta aurata var. microphylla Müll.Arg., Sticta aurata var. pallens Nyl., Sticta aurata var. pallidoglaucescens C. Knight]
native, indigenous, source: Hooker (1847), Farlow (1902), Dodge (1936), Andersson (1855), Weber (1966, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Benítez et al. (2015); Bungartz, F. 3926 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3448 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3479 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4119 [CDS], more...
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Aptroot 64075 [CDS 30636], source: Bungartz et al. (2013b); Herrera-Campos, M.A. GAL-487 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64600 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64075 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64081 [CDS]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013b); Aptroot, A. 64322 B [CDS], Nugra, F. 493 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63867 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4254 [CDS], more...
[Dictyonema galapagoense Yánez, Dal-Forno & Bungartz]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 8517 (CDS 41163), source: Dal-Forno et al. (2017), Yánez-Ayabaca et al. (2012); Bungartz, F. 8517 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1545 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 9475 [CDS 46556], source: Dal-Forno et al. (2017); Bungartz, F. 9475 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63200 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65572 [CDS]
[Porina phaea (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Strigula diederichiana Etayo, Cl. Roux & Sérus., Strigula phaea (Ach.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria phaea Ach.]
[Leiophloea viridiseda (Nyl.) Trevis., Porina viridiseda (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Strigula viridiseda (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria viridiseda Nyl., Verrucaria viridiseda f. viridiseda Nyl.]
[Opegrapha arabica (Müll. Arg.) Vain.]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Dal-Forno 1209 [CDS 44733], source: Dal-Forno et al. (2017); Herrera-Campos, M.A. 10560 [CDS], Dal-Forno, M. 1171 [CDS], Dal-Forno, M. 1174 [CDS], Dal-Forno, M. 1177 [CDS], more...
[Ectographis poitaei (Fée) Trevis., Glaucinaria poitaei (Fée) A. Massal., Graphina melaleuca Müll.Arg., Graphina obtectula Müll.Arg., Graphina palmeri Zahlbr., Graphina poitaei (Fée) Müll.Arg., Graphina triangularis Zahlbr., Graphina virginea (Eschw.) Müll.Arg., Graphis collosporella Vain., Graphis homographa Nyl., Graphis poitaei Fée, Graphis virginea Nyl., Leiogramma virgineum Eschw., Opegrapha poitaei (Fée) Bél.]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 9761 [CDS 47078], source: Bungartz et al. (2016); Bungartz, F. 9761 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 7597 [CDS 38093], source: Bungartz et al. (2016); Bungartz, F. 7597 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7749 [CDS]
[Acrorixis actinostoma (Ach.) Trevis., Aspicilia aperta (Schaer.) Motyka nom. inval., Diploschistes actinostomus f. apertus (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Lagerheimina actinostoma (Ach.) Kuntze, Lecanora actinostoma (Ach.) Nyl., Limboria actinostoma (Ach.) A. Massal., Limboria actinostoma var. actinostoma (Ach.) A. Massal., Urceolaria actinostoma Pers., Urceolaria scruposa var. actinostoma (Ach.) Grognot, Verrucaria actinostoma Ach.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Ertz, D. 11948 [CDS]
[Limboria euganea A. Massal., Urceolaria euganea (A. Massal.) Jatta]
[Diploschistes bryophilus (Ehrh.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus f. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus f. iridatus (A. Massal.) Lettau, Diploschistes bryophilus f. pachylepis Lettau, Diploschistes bryophilus f. parasitica (Sommerf.) Servít, Diploschistes bryophilus var. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus var. klementianus Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. praematricus Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. rossica Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. rossicus Gyeln., Diploschistes lichenicola (Mont.) Vain., Diploschistes muscorum subsp. muscorum, Diploschistes scruposus f. bryophilus (Ehrh.) Oxner, Diploschistes scruposus subsp. muscorum (Scop.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Diploschistes scruposus var. bryophilus (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Diploschistes scruposus var. parasiticus (Sommerf.) Zahlbr., Gyalecta bryophila (Ehrh.) Ach., Lecanora scruposa var. parasitica Sommerf., Lichen bryophilus Ehrh., Lichen muscorum Scop., Mellitiosporium lichenicola (Mont. & Fr.) Sacc., Patellaria muscorum (Scop.) Hoffm., Stictis lichenicola Mont. & Fr., Urceolaria bryophila (Ehrh.) Funck, Urceolaria lichenicola (Mont. & Fr.) A. Rich.]
[Urceolaria rampoddensis Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63187 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4098 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8189 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3984 [CDS], more...
[Dirina approximata subsp. approximata Zahlbr., Dirina herrei Zahlbr., Dirina paradoxa subsp. approximata (Zahlbr.) Tehler]
endemic to Galapagos, Tehler et al. (2013) include both sorediate and fertile specimens in Dirina approximata and they consider D. herrei a synonym; Type of D. approximata: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Seymour (South Seymour Island), 1929, Albert W.C.T. Herre s. n. [W—lectotype selected by Tehler 1983); B, BM, G, GBG, H, KASSEL, L, LD, M, NY, S-L6, UC, UPS—isolectotypes; no type material in COLO]; type of D. herrei: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Santa Maria (Charles Isl.) Post Office Bay, 1929, Albert W.C.T. Herre s. n. [LD—lectotype selected by Tehler (1983); UPS—isolectotype and distributed as Zahlbr. Lich Rar. Exs. n. 269 in B, W; no type material in COLO]; F. Bungartz: no original material of D. approximata and/or D. herrei could be located in COLO; specimens collected Weber have been annotated as D. approximata or they were misidentifications of other species, e.g., Syncesia psaroleuca], source: Zahlbruckner (1931; protologues for Dirina approximata and Dirina herrei), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986), Aptroot & Sparrius (2008), Tehler et al. (2013); Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1922 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9768 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3858 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9216 [CDS], more...
native, questionably endem., Holotype: S [F210836]; Tehler et al. (2013) described Dirina pacifica based on a type from Hawaii, but they also cite specimens from Galapagos and discuss this rather unusually disjunct distribution, pointing out that the Galapagos material is phylogenetically distinct, forming a sister node to specimens analyzed from Hawaii, which might suggest that Galapagos specimens may be a different, although cryptic sister species, source: Weber (1986; reported among/not distinguished from records of D. approximata), Aptroot & Sparrius (2008; as Dirina catalinariae), Tehler et al. (2013); Bungartz, F. 9487 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5210 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65761 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63294 [CDS], more...
[Dirinaria aegialita var. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) B.J. Moore, Dirinaria aegiliata (Afzel. ex Ach.) B.J. Moore, Hagenia aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Bagl., Lecanora aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Ach., Parmelia aegialita Afzel. ex Ach., Physcia aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita f. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita f. coccinea Lynge, Physcia aegialita var. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita var. obliterata B. de Lesd., Physcia aegialita var. saxicola Räsänen, Physcia aspera var. alutacea H. Magn., Physcia aspera var. aspera H. Magn.]
[Anaptychia applanata (Fée) A. Massal., Dirinaria consimilis var. ochracea D.D. Awasthi, Lecanora flavostraminea (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Parmelia applanata Fée, Parmelia redacta Stirt., Physcia applanata (Fée) Zahlbr., Physcia flavostramineum Müll.Arg., Placodium flavostramineum Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, according to A. Aptroot (pers. comm.) in Weber (1986) probably also as Dirinaria leopoldii, source: Weber (1986); Bungartz, F. 4085 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11846 [CDS], Simbaña, W. 539 [CDS], Jaramillo, P. 3000 A [CDS], more...
[Physcia caesiopicta Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3414 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5197 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63703 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8187 [CDS], more...
native, indigenous, A. Aptroot (pers. comm.) suspects that Weber's specimens are misidentification of Dirinaria aegialita; however, TLC by K.Kalb & F. Bungartz confirms that the specimens have indeed been correctly identified as D. confusa, source: Weber (1986); Ertz, D. 12024 [CDS], Nugra, F. 105 [CDS], Jaramillo, P. 3000 B [CDS], Jaramillo, P. 3009 A [CDS], more...
[Physcia consimilis Stirt., Pyxine consimilis (Stirt.) Stirt.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 4083 [CDS]
[Crocynia leopoldii Stein]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, one specimen of Weber cited in Awashti (1975): South Plaza, Weber L-40110; Two specimens in COLO (L-40736, L-40762), coll. Itow, source: Awasthi (1975), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Aptroot, A. 64534 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5120 [CDS], Ertz, D. 12026 [CDS], Nugra, F. 638 [CDS], more...
[Dimelaena picta (Sw.) Trevis., Hagenia picta (Sw.) Bagl., Lichen pictus Sw., Lobaria picta (Sw.) Raeusch., Parmelia picta (Sw.) Ach., Parmelia plumosa Taylor, Physcia picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia picta f. coccinea Müll.Arg., Physcia picta f. erythrocardia (Tuck.) J.W. Thomson, Physcia picta f. isidiophora Nyl., Physcia picta f. picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia picta var. coccinea Müll.Arg., Physcia picta var. endochroma H. Magn. & D.D. Awasthi, Physcia picta var. erythrocardia Tuck., Physcia picta var. flavicans Müll.Arg., Physcia picta var. picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia plumosa (Taylor) Nyl., Pyxine picta (Sw.) Tuck., Pyxine picta var. erythrocardia Tuck., Squamaria picta (Sw.) Ach.]
[Graphis afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii f. afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii f. atroalba (Kremp.) Redinger, Graphis afzelii var. afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii var. nivea (Fée) Vain.]
native, indigenous, source: Weber (1986), Bungartz et al. (2009); Hillmann, G. GAL-128 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9634 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 10019 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65032 [CDS]
[Bezerroplaca lucernifera (Kalb & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking]
[Arthonia pellicula Müll.Arg., Arthonia pellicula f. pellicula Müll.Arg., Arthonia pellicula f. trichariosa Müll.Arg., Bacidia pellicula (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria pellicula (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 8279 C [CDS]
[Lobaria ornata Malme]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, previous Galapagos reports of Lobaria patinifera or L. dissecta according to Simon et al. (2020) refer to Emmanuelia ornata, source: Weber (1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Simon et al. (2020); Moncada, B. 8489 B [CDS], Moncada, B. 8490 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10972 [CDS], Moncada, B. 8492 [CDS], more...
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 64016 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11902 [CDS]
[Verrucaria pallidula Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 7054 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64031 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65157 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8455 [CDS], more...
[Verrucaria petrolepidea Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 65471 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4665 [CDS]
[Dermatocarpon pusillum (Hedw.) Anzi, Dermatocarpon pusillum var. pusillum (Hedw.) Anzi, Dermatocarpon sorediatum (Borrer) Arnold, Dermatocarpon trapeziforme (J. König) Trevis., Endocarpon hedwigii (Ach.) Ach. nom. illegit., Endocarpon pusillum var. pusillum Hedw., Endocarpon sorediatum (Borrer) Hook., Endocarpon trapeziforme (J. König) Flagey, Endopyrenium pusillum (Hedw.) Schwend., Endopyrenium pusillum var. pallidum Körb., Endopyrenium pusillum var. pusillum Körb., Endopyrenium trapeziforme (J. König) Stein, Leightonia pusilla (Hedw.) Garov., Lichen trapeziformis J. König, Placidium trapeziforme (J. König) Arnold, Verrucaria sorediata Borrer, Verrucaria trapeziformis (J. König) Schrad.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: previously already confirmed by Weber (1986), material confirmed by Breuss, but some specimens are Endocarpon pallidellum Ach., source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Ertz, D. 11947 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4306 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4159 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3587 [CDS], more...
[Chiodecton leucolytum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Enterographa praepallens (Nyl.) Redinger, Stigmatidium leucolytum Nyl., Stigmatidium praepallens Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63270 [CDS]
[Chiodecton pallidellum (Nyl.) Vain., Platygrapha pallidella Nyl.]
[Chiodecton subgelatinosum (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Platygrapha subgelatinosa Stirt.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3829 [CDS]
[Lobaria mollissima Samp.]
native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 65548 [CDS]
[Bacidia bouteillei (Desm.) Hulting, Biatora bouteillei (Desm.) A. Massal., Biatorina bouteillei (Desm.) Bausch, Biatorina littorella (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bilimbia bouteillei (Desm.) Hulting, Catillaria bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr., Catillaria bouteillei f. abieticola (Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria bouteillei f. bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr., Catillaria bouteillei f. degenerans Vain., Catillaria bouteillei f. hohenbuehelii (Poetsch) Vain., Lecanora bouteillei (Desm.) Harm., Lecidea bouteillei (Desm.) Nyl., Lecidea littorella Nyl., Parmelia bouteillei Desm.]
[Bacidia fuscatula (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia fuscatula (Müll. Arg.) Szatala, Patellaria fuscatula Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous
[Bacidia rhaphidophylli (Rehm) Zahlbr., Bilimbia rhaphidophylli Rehm, Mycobilimbia rhaphidophylli (Rehm) Sacc.]
native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9385 D [CDS]
[Bacidia rubida (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Patellaria rubida Müll.Arg.]
[Bacidia stanhopeae (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Badimia stanhopeae (Müll.Arg.) Vězda, Fellhanera stanhopiae (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Lumbsch & Elix, Patellaria stanhopeae Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, Santesson (1952) corrected the original epithet stanhopiae to stanhopeae; the epithet is based on the orchid genus Stanhopea, on which the type was found, and this name is sometimes mispelled stanhopia; Bungartz, F. 8632 A [CDS], Rivas Plata, E. 4099 [CDS], Rivas Plata, E. 4086 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10456 B [CDS], more...
[Graphis comparilis Nyl., Graphis comparilis f. comparilis Nyl., Graphis comparilis var. comparilis Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, identification based on a single specimen (Aptroot 63929); identification confirmed by R. Lücking, previously as F. aff. comparilis (see Bungartz et al 2009), source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Aptroot, A. 63929 [CDS]
[Graphis dumastioides Fink]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Nugra, F. 256 [CDS]
[Graphina tectigera (Eschw.) Müll.Arg., Graphis tectigera Eschw.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 1803 [CDS]
[Graphis timida Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9261 [CDS]
[Sclerophyton murex Egea & Torrente ex Sparrius]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Aptroot & Sparrius (2008); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65353 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4543 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4553 [CDS], more...
[Chiodecton subseriale Nyl., Enterographa subserialis (Nyl.) Redinger, Stigmatidium subseriale (Nyl.) Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Aptroot & Sparrius (2008); Aptroot, A. 65011 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64736 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11501 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64467 C [CDS], more...
[Graphina cupulicarpa Redinger, Gymnotrema atratum (Fée) Nyl., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. macrosporum B. de Lesd., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanactis obfirmata Nyl., Lecidea scyphulifera Ach., Phaeographina obfirmata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Thelotrema atratum Fée]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Aptroot, A. 63447 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6484 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9934 [CDS]
[Opegrapha anfractuosa (Eschw.) Mont., Scaphis anfractuosa Eschw.]
[Graphina dichotoma Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2009); Bungartz, F. 8315 [CDS]
[Graphina disserpens (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Graphina disserpens var. disserpens (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 10251 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9516 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Dal-Forno, M. 1226 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 10250 [CDS]
[Graphis rigidula Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 10527 [CDS]
[Graphina platycarpa var. platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr., Graphina platycarpa var. recta (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Graphina sophistica var. recta Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 8497 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Spielmann, A.A. 10671 A [CDS]
[Graphis lineola var. marginata (Meyen & Flot.) Zahlbr.]
native, indigenous; Rivas Plata, E. 4034 [CDS]
[Graphis scripta subsp. tenella (Ach.) Nyl., Graphis scripta var. tenella (Ach.) Tuck., Opegrapha comma var. tenella (Ach.) Mont., Opegrapha tenella (Ach.) Mont.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 9359 H [CDS]
[Ectolechia filicina (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Sporopodium filicinum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Sporopodium filicinum var. filicinum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Sporopodium filicinum var. leioplacum Zahlbr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63395 C [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63395 D [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7327 A [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9517 [CDS]
[Actinoplaca vulgaris (Müll. Arg.) Vězda & Poelt, Gyalideopsis vulgaris f. vulgaris (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Lopadium vulgare Müll.Arg., Strigula vulgaris (Müll. Arg.) Lücking nom. inval., Tricharia vulgaris (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant., Vezdamyces vulgaris (Müll. Arg.) XavierLeite, M. Cáceres & Lücking]
[Lecanora persoonii Fée]
native, indigenous, In Weber (1966, 1986) and Elix & McCarthy (1998) as Haematomma puniceum, fide A. Aptroot (pers. comm.), source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1966, 1986); Bungartz, F. 3861 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63252 [CDS], Simbaña, W. 540 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6185 [CDS], more...
[Julella avicenniae (Borse) K.D. Hyde, Pleospora avicenniae Borse]
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates; so far reported only from the Galapagos, native, indigenous; Arboleda, F. 112 [CDS]
[Anema dodgei Herre, Solorina despreauxii Mont., Solorinaria despreauxii Mont.]
[Chiodecton rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.) Nyl., Chiodecton sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum f. sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum var. lutescens Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum var. sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Corticium rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.) Bres., Cryptothecia rubrocincta (Ehrenb.:Fr.) Thor, Herpothallon sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler, Herpothallon sanguineum f. sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler, Hypochnus rubrocinctus Ehrenb., Hypochnus sanguineus (Sw.) Kuntze, Thelephora sanguinea Sw.]
[Acolium leucampyx (Tuck.) Tuck., Acolium leucampyx var. leucampyx (Tuck.) Tuck., Acolium leucampyx var. minor B. de Lesd., Cyphelium leucampyx (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Cyphelium leucampyx var. leucampyx (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Cyphelium leucampyx var. minor (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Trachylia leucampyx Tuck., Tylophoron triloculare Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 5733 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5720 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4311 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4321 [CDS], more...
[Anaptychia comosa (Eschw.) Trevis., Anaptychia comosa var. comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal., Anaptychia comosa var. plana Sambo, Heterodermia comosa var. comosa (Eschw.) Follmann & Redón, Heterodermia comosa var. plana Sambo, Parmelia comosa Eschw., Physcia comosa Nyl.]
[Anaptychia diademata (Taylor) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. angustata (Räsänen) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. brachyloba (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. condensata (Kurok.) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. diademata (Taylor) Kurok., Anaptychia major (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. major (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Heterodermia major (Nyl.) Trevis., Parmelia diademata Taylor, Physcia major Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. major (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
[Anaptychia galactophylla (Tuck.) Trevis., Parmelia ciliaris var. galactophylla Tuck., Parmelia speciosa var. galactophylla (Tuck.) E. Michener, Physcia galactophylla (Tuck.) Nyl., Physcia latifolia var. galactophylla (Tuck.) Nyl., Physcia leucomelos var. galactophylla (Tuck.) Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. galactophylla (Tuck.) Tuck.]
[Anaptychia heterochroa Vain., Anaptychia hypoleuca var. colorata Zahlbr., Anaptychia obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia obscurata var. obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia obscurata var. serpens Vain., Anaptychia sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge, Anaptychia sorediifera var. colorata (Zahlbr.) Nádv., Anaptychia sorediifera var. sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge, Heppia obscuratula Nyl., Peltula obscuratula (Nyl.) Poelt ex Egea, Physcia obscurata Nyl.]
[Anaptychia podocarpa (Bél.) A. Massal., Anaptychia podocarpa var. conferta Vain., Anaptychia podocarpa var. podocarpa (Bél.) A. Massal., Heterodermia podocarpa var. podocarpa (Bél.) D.D. Awasthi, Parmelia podocarpa Bél., Physcia leucomelos var. podocarpa (Bél.) Nyl.]
[Anaptychia pseudospeciosa Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa f. pseudospeciosa Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa f. tagawae Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. inactiva Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. pseudospeciosa Kurok.]
native, indigenous; Spielmann, A.A. 10471 [CDS]
[Alectoria speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Anaptychia speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa f. brachyloba (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. cinerascens (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Anaptychia speciosa f. cubana B. de Lesd., Anaptychia speciosa f. foliolosa C. Moreau & M. Moreau, Anaptychia speciosa f. isidiosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. sorediosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. spathulata Vain., Anaptychia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa f. subimbricata (Räsänen) M. Satô, Anaptychia speciosa var. angustiloba (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa var. esorediata Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. lineariloba Müll.Arg., Anaptychia speciosa var. lobulifera Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. mexicana B. de Lesd., Anaptychia speciosa var. microspora Kurok., Anaptychia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa var. stellata Tuck., Borrera speciosa (Wulfen) Mudd, Dimelaena speciosa (Wulfen) Norman, Hagenia speciosa (Wulfen) De Not., Heterodermia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Imbricaria speciosa (Wulfen) DC., Lichen speciosus Wulfen, Lobaria speciosa (Wulfen) Hoffm., Parmelia speciosa (Wulfen) Ach., Parmelia speciosa f. fagorum Britzelm., Parmelia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) Ach., Physcia speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. brachyloba Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. cinerascens Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. coralligera Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. pulvinigera Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. sorediosa Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. subgranulosa Tuck., Physcia speciosa var. angustiloba Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa var. dactyliza Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Pseudophyscia speciosa (Wulfen) Müll. Arg., Pseudophyscia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Müll. Arg., Squamaria speciosa (Wulfen) Frege, Xanthoria speciosa (Wulfen) Horw., Xanthoria speciosa var. hypoleuca (Muhl.) Horw., Xanthoria speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Horw.]
[Dimelaena adglutinata (Flörke) Trevis., Hagenia adglutinata (Flörke) Bagl. & Carestia, Hagenia elaeina (Sm.) Bagl., Hyperphyscia adglutinata var. adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt, Imbricaria adglutinata (Flörke) Chevall., Parmelia adglutinata (Flörke) Flörke, Parmelia obscura var. adglutinata (Flörke) Schaer., Physcia adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata f. adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata f. sorediata Nyl., Physcia adglutinata subsp. adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata var. adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia adglutinata var. lepraeformis (Flörke) Zahlbr., Physcia elaeina (Sm.) A.L. Sm., Physcia elaeina f. albida B. de Lesd., Physcia elaeina f. elaeina (Sm.) A.L. Sm., Physcia elaeina f. pyrithrocardia (Müll. Arg.) J.W. Thomson, Physcia elaeina f. tenuissima Nádv., Physcia elaeina var. elaeina (Sm.) A.L. Sm., Physcia elaeina var. subvirella Nyl., Physciopsis adglutinata (Flörke) M. Choisy, Physciopsis elaeina (Sm.) Poelt, Physciopsis elaeina var. elaeina (Sm.) Poelt, Physciopsis elaeina var. pyrithrocardia (Müll. Arg.) D.D. Awasthi & Kr.P. Singh, Squamaria elaeina (Sm.) Hook., Xanthoria adglutinata (Flörke) Horw., Xanthoria adglutinata f. adglutinata (Flörke) Horw., Xanthoria adglutinata f. sorediata (Nyl.) Horw.]
native, indigenous, in Weber (1986) as Phaeophyscia hispidula, fide A. Aptroot (pers. comm.), source: Dodge (1936), Weber (1966, 1986); Weber, W.A. 49 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6977 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9690 [CDS]
[Physciopsis granulata Poelt]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Nugra, F. 479 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7181 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7210 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7364 [CDS], more...
[Physcia pandani H. Magn., Physcia pandani f. pandani H. Magn.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 8548 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8550 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10184 B [CDS]
[Physcia adglutinata var. pyrithrocardia Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Hillmann, G. GAL-65 [CDS]
[Parmelia dissecta Nyl., Parmelia horrescens Taylor, Parmelia laevigata f. dissecta (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Parmelia laevigata subsp. dissecta (Nyl.) Nyl., Parmelia saxatilis f. horrescens (Taylor) Stizenb., Parmelina dissecta (Nyl.) Hale, Parmelina horrescens (Taylor) Hale, Parmelinopsis horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale, Usnea horrescens (Taylor) Motyka]
[Hypotrachyna angustissima Marcelli & C.H. Ribeiro, Parmelia endorubra f. imbricatiformis Gyeln., Parmelia jamaicensis Vain. nom. illegit., Parmelia norstictica Hale, Parmelia pseudorevoluta Gyeln., Parmelia revoluta f. isidiosa Müll. Arg.]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63158 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63188 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64848 [CDS], more...
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 8149 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6825 [CDS], Spielmann, A.A. 10586 [CDS]
[Parmelia subfatiscens Kurok., Parmelina subfatiscens (Kurok.) Hale, Parmelinopsis subfatiscens (Kurok.) Elix & Hale]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, previously as Parmelinopsis spumosa (Asahina) Elix & Hale, but different chemistry; Bungartz, F. 7062 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 2074 [CDS], Yánez-Ayabaca, A. 2101 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65594 [CDS], more...
[Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 65198 B [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 64729 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4490 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3791 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64428 [CDS]
[Polyblastia geminella (Nyl.) Trevis., Polyblastiopsis geminella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Polyblastiopsis rappii Zahlbr., Thelenella geminella (Nyl.) Vain., Verrucaria geminella Nyl.]
[Aspicilia leucophyma (Leight.) Hue, Aspicilia leucophyma var. leucophyma (Leight.) Hue, Aspicilia leucophyma var. littoralis (Vain.) Räsänen, Lecanora leucophyma Leight., Lecanora wimmeriana (Körb.) Poetsch, Zeora wimmeriana Körb.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 4456 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64942 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65691 [CDS]
[Caloplaca aphanotripta (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca griseovirens (A.L. Sm.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca isidiosissimus Breuss, Lecanora aphanotripta Nyl., Placodium aphanotriptum (Nyl.) Eckfeldt, Placodium griseovirens A.L. Sm.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020b); Bungartz, F. 4100 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4051 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65085 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64874 [CDS]
[Callopisma aurantiacum f. epiphora (Lightf.) Müll. Arg., Callopisma aurantiacum f. epiphorum (Taylor) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca aurantiaca f. epiphora (Taylor) Zahlbr., Caloplaca epiphora (Taylor) Dodge, Caloplaca epiphora var. epiphora (Taylor) C.W. Dodge, Caloplaca epiphora var. fuscescens C.W. Dodge, Lecanora epiphora Taylor]
[Lecidea stephanella Nyl., Lopadium stephanellum (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63395 E [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63869 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64525 A [CDS]
[Opegrapha brattiae Egea & Ertz]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Ertz & Tehler (2010); Ertz, D. 11608 [CDS], Clerc, P. 08-270 A [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64983 [CDS]
[Lecanactis nashii Egea & Torrente, Opegrapha hassei Zahlbr., Opegrapha hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Tehler, Platygrapha hypothallina Zahlbr., Schismatomma hypothallinum (Zahlbr.) Hasse]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Aptroot & Sparrius (2008); Bungartz, F. 3853 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3601 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3602 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3822 [CDS], more...
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Rocella gracilis (as: Roccella humboldtiana var. hypochromatica), Holotype KOELN 35310, source: Follmann & Werner (2003)
[Lecanactis microcarpella (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha microcarpella Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Nugra, F. 111 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9604 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4483 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9399 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. 2020
[Lecidea chilena Zahlbr.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986), Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 6312 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6411 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 10228 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 8178 [CDS 40824], source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 8177 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8178 [CDS], Truong, C. 1174 [CDS]
[Lecanora australiensis Zahlbr., Lecanora caesiorubella subsp. caesiorubella Ach., Lecanora cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vain., Lecanora leucoma Nyl., Lecanora pallida var. caesiorubella (Ach.) H. Magn., Lecanora pulverata Stirt., Parmelia caesiorubella (Ach.) Fr., Patellaria caesiorubella (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria cancriformis Hoffm.]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 6596 [CDS 34816], source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Aptroot, A. 63125 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63284 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5389 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5410 [CDS], more...
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 4859 [CDS 29055], source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 4852 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4859 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65570 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 6432 [CDS 34647], source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 6432 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Bungartz 7008 [CDS 36515], source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 5249 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7008 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8171 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7420 C [CDS]
[Aspicilia oreinoides Körb., Carbonea oreinoides (Körb.) Brusse, Lecidea angolensis Müll.Arg., Lecidea angolensis var. angolensis Müll.Arg., Lecidea angolensis var. orientalis J. Steiner, Lecidea angolensis var. riograndensis Malme, Lecidea angolensis var. vegetior Zahlbr., Lecidea lactea f. oreinoides (Körb.) Nyl., Lecidea mundula Müll.Arg., Lecidea oreinoides (Körb.) Hochst, Lecidea pantherina f. oreinoides (Körb.) Zahlbr., Lecidea tennessensis Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986), Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 6297 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6781 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6789 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7271 [CDS], more...
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 5633 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9509 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6563 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 6636 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Type: Ecuador. Galápagos: Isla Santa Cruz, just E of Darwin Station, Academy Bay, exposed point, just above high tide mark, on rock, 10-Apr-1967, Weber, W.A. & Lanier, J. s.n. [COLO 297761 (L-63675) – holotype!; further isotypes also distributed as Weber, Lich. Exs. [Boulder (Colorado)] no. 500], source: Weber (1981, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Bungartz et al. (2020); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63101 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63423 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63263 [CDS], more...
[Lecanora conizaea f. strobilina (Spreng.) H. Olivier, Lecanora conizaea var. strobilina (Spreng.) Flagey, Lecanora strobilina Ach., Lecanora strobilina Ach. nom. illegit., Lecanora symmicta f. strobilina (Spreng.) H. Olivier, Lecanora varia f. strobilina (Spreng.) Flagey, Lecanora varia var. strobilina (Spreng.) Th. Fr., Parmelia strobilina Spreng.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 7617 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 7600 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64893 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65154 [CDS]
[Aspicilia subimmersa (Fée) Hue, Aspicilia subimmersa subsp. subimmersa (Fée) Hue, Lecanora laevissima C. Knight, Lecidea leioplaca Müll.Arg., Lecidea subimmersa Fée, Lecidea wilsonii Räsänen]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Guderley (1999), Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 6311 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8451 [CDS], Nugra, F. 904 [CDS]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: Both chemotypes occur in Galapagos (previously only L. subimmersa ssp. subimmersa reported by Guderley 1999), source: Guderley (1999), Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 5229 [CDS], Nugra, F. 558 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Bungartz, F. 7343 [CDS]
[Lecanora sulphurescens Fée]
native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Guderley (1999), Weber (1986), Bungartz et al. (2020); Aptroot, A. 63093 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63709 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Aptroot 65410 [CDS 31996], source: Bungartz et al. (2020); Aptroot, A. 65410 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65401 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4860 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65588 [CDS]
[Lecidea alienata Nyl., Lecidea asema Nyl., Lecidea catalinaria Stizenb., Lecidea effugiens Nilson, Lecidea elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Flagey, Lecidea parasema var. elaeochromoides Nyl., Lecidea polyantha Taylor ex Leight., Lecidea subincongrua Nyl., Lecidea subincongrua f. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) H. Magn., Lecidea subincongrua f. subincongrua Nyl., Lecidea subincongrua var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Poelt, Lecidea subincongrua var. subincongrua Nyl., Lecidea vulgata f. effugiens (Nilson) Zahlbr., Lecidella asema var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Nimis & Tretiach, Lecidella elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel, Lecidella polyantha Taylor ex Leight., Lecidella subincongrua var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert, Lithographa larbalestieri Leight.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 3563 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4059 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3579 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3564 [CDS], more...
[Lecidea enterochlora Taylor, Lecidea parasema var. prasinula Wedd., Lecidea prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd., Lecidea prasinula f. major B. de Lesd., Lecidea prasinula f. prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd., Lecidea scabra Taylor, Lecidea scabra f. scabra Taylor, Lecidella prasinula (Wedd.) Hertel 1980]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 4171 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 6848 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8155 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5843 [CDS]
[Phaeographis hypomelaena Müll.Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 5530 A [CDS]
[Glyphis sericea (Eschw.) Nyl., Graphis sericea (Eschw.) Nyl., Lecanactis sericea (Eschw.) Kremp., Lecanactis sericea var. sericea (Eschw.) Kremp., Leiogramma sericeum Eschw., Phaeographis sericea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg., Phaeographis sericea var. sericea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.]
[Pannaria stylophora Vain., Parmeliella stylophora (Vain.) P.M. Jørg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Ertz, D. 11906 A [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7641 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8004 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7653 [CDS], more...
[Marfloraea erythrella (Müll. Arg.) S.Y. Kondr., Lőkös & Hur, Pertusaria erythrella Müll.Arg.]
native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2015); Ertz, D. 11856 [CDS]
[Pertusaria leucosorodes Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2015); Bungartz, F. 4736 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 7439 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4069 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65035 [CDS], more...
[Lepra oahuensis H. Magn. ex A.W. Archer & Elix nom. inval., Pertusaria oahuensis H. Magn. nom. inval.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2015); Bungartz, F. 5849 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8176 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64082 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c); Ertz, D. 11579 [CDS]
[Crocynia aliciae Hue, Crocynia americana B. de Lesd., Crocynia andrewii B. de Lesd., Crocynia finkii B. de Lesd., Crocynia mollissima B. de Lesd.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c); Bungartz, F. 3925 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64491 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63825 [CDS], Truong, C. 1536 [CDS], more...
[Crocynia tephra Hue, Lecidea incana (L.) Ach., Lepra incana (L.) F.H. Wigg., Lepraria aeruginosa (Weiss) Sm., Patellaria incana (L.) Spreng., Pulveraria incana (L.) Flörke, Verrucaria incana (L.) P. Gaertn., G. Mey. & Scherb.]
preliminary identification, native, indigenous, not in the strict sense, but Lepraria aff. incana, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c; as Lepraria aff. incana); Bungartz, F. 3934 [CDS]
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Hillmann GAL-10 [CDS 44773], source: Bungartz et al. (2013c); Hillmann, G. GAL-10 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63130 [CDS], Nugra, F. 47 [CDS]
[Leprocaulon tenellum Tuck., Stereocaulon tenellum Tuck.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, erroneoulsy listed as Stereocaulon albicans by Elix & McCarthy (1998); as "Lepraria tenellum" by Lendemer & Hodkinson (2013), erroneous use of gener for the the species' epithet according to Art. 23.5 Melbourne Code, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Lendemer & Hodkinson (2013), Weber (1981, 1986); Aptroot, A. 65051 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9368 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9376 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9510 [CDS], more...
[Crocynia vouauxii Hue, Leproloma vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63089 [CDS]
[Callopisma chrysodetum (Vain.) Räsänen, Caloplaca chrysodeta (Vain. ex Räsänen) Dombr., Placodium chrysodetum Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2020b); Bungartz, F. 7595 [CDS]
[Polychidium stipitatum Vězda & W.A. Weber]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 64694 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64649 [CDS], Dal-Forno, M. 1176 [CDS]
[Collema cyanescens (Ach.) Rabenh., Collema tremelloides var. cyanescens Ach., Leptogium cyanizum Nyl. nom. illegit., Leptogium tremelloides var. cyanescens (Ach.) Hepp, Lichen cyanescens Pers., Parmelia cyanescens (Pers.) Ach., Stephanophorus cyanizum (Nyl.) Nyl., Verrucaria cyanescens (Pers.) Hoffm.]
native, indigenous, source: Weber (1981), Weber (1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), Bungartz (2008), Miquel & Bungartz (2017); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63149 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63156 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63309 [CDS], more...
[Collema marginellum (Sw.) Raeusch., Leptogium marginellum var. marginellum (Sw.) Gray, Lichen marginellus Sw., Parmelia marginella (Sw.) Ach.]
native, indigenous, source: Dodge (1936), Weber (1966, 1986), Elix & McCarthy (1998), LeDee (2000), Bungartz (2008); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63334 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3928 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64505 [CDS], more...
[Collema phyllocarpum Pers., Collema turneri Taylor ex Hook. f., Leptogium bullatum (Sw.) Mont., Leptogium bullatum f. phyllocarpum (Pers.) Tuck., Leptogium bullatum var. bullatum (Sw.) Mont., Leptogium phyllocarpum var. turneri (Taylor ex Hook. f.) Zahlbr., Stephanophorus phyllocarpum (Pers.) Mont.]
[Leptotrema lepadodes var. lepadodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Thelotrema lepadodes Tuck., Thelotrema lepadodes subsp. lepadodes Tuck., Thelotrema lepadodes var. lepadodes Tuck.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Hillmann, G. GAL-20 [CDS]
[Leptotrema compunctum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum f. compunctum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum f. portoricense (Vain.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema compunctum var. antillarum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema compunctum var. compunctum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum var. persicinum Müll.Arg., Leptotrema compunctum var. praiense (Vain.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema compunctum var. purpuratum Müll.Arg., Leptotrema occultum (Eschw.) Hale, Lichen compunctus Sm., Myriotrema compunctum (Ach.) Hale, Myriotrema occultum (Eschw.) Hale, Thelotrema compunctum (Sm.) Nyl., Thelotrema compunctum f. compunctum (Sm.) Nyl., Thelotrema compunctum f. portoricense Vain., Thelotrema compunctum var. antillarum Vain., Thelotrema compunctum var. compunctum (Sm.) Nyl., Thelotrema compunctum var. praiense Vain., Thelotrema compunctum var. purpuratum (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Thelotrema occultum Eschw., Tremotyliomyces occulti Cif. & Tomas., Urceolaria compuncta (Sm. ex Ach.) Ach.]
[Diploschistes diffractus (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes diffractus f. diffractus (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes diffractus f. saxicola (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Leptotrema diffractum Müll.Arg., Leptotrema polycarpum Müll. Arg., Leptotrema subcompunctum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Myriotrema subcompunctum (Nyl.) Hale, Thelotrema subcompunctum Nyl.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Truong, C. 1530 [CDS], Clerc, P. 08-372 [CDS], Herrera-Campos, M.A. GAL-494 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 8661 [CDS], more...
[Anaptychia appalachensis Kurok., Heterodermia appalachensis (Kruok.) W.L. Culb.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 8501 [CDS], Nugra, F. 86 [CDS]
[Anaptychia boryi (Fée) Mass., Anaptychia boryi var. boryi (Fée) A. Massal., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. neoleucomelaena Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. sorediosa (Jatta) Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. squarrosa (Vain.) Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena var. neoleucomelaena Kurok., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena var. squarrosa (Vain.) Kurok., Heterodermia boryi (Fée) Kr.P. Singh & S.R. Singh, Heterodermia boryi f. boryi (Fée) Kr.P. Singh & S.R. Singh, Heterodermia leucomelaena subsp. boryi (Fée) Swinscow & Krog, Heterodermia leucomelos subsp. boryi (Fée) Swinscow & Krog]
[Anaptychia leucomelaena f. circinalis Zahlbr., Anaptychia leucomelos f. circinalis Zahlbr., Anaptychia neoleucomelaena f. circinalis (Zahlbr.) Kurok., Heterodermia boryi f. circinalis (Zahlbr.) J.C. Wei, Heterodermia circinalis (Zahlbr.) W.A. Weber, Heterodermia neoleucomelaena f. circinalis (Zahlbr.) Follmann & Redón]
native, indigenous, Typification: Meyer 397; Meyer 399; Type from Ecuador, but typification not determined; distributed by Weber (1981) as Heterodermia circinalis (Weber, Lich. Exs. 504; see Weber 1981), source: Weber (1981; as Heterodermia circinalis); Bungartz, F. 4296 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65123 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65507 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 5801 [CDS], more...
[Anaptychia 'leucomelaena' (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelaena (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelaena f. leucomelaena, Anaptychia leucomelos (L.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) A. Massal., Borrera leucomelos (L.) Ach., Hagenia leucomelos (L.) Schwend., Heterodermia leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelaena f. leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelaena subsp. leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelaena var. leucomelaena (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos subsp. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Heterodermia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Lichen leucomelos L., Lobaria leucomelos (L.) Raeusch., Parmelia leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Ach., Parmelia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Eschw., Physcia leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos f. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia leucomelos var. leucomelos (L.) Michx., Physcia speciosa var. leucomelos (L.) Tuck., Teloschistes leucomelos (L.) A. Schneid., Xanthoria leucomelos (L.) Horw.]
native, indigenous, F. Bungartz: first reported from Galapagos by Hooker (1847) as Borrera leucomelas var. filiformis (Dix) Hook. f., source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Farlow (1902), Hooker (1847), Miquel & Bungartz (2017), Stewart (1912), Weber (1986); Lawrence H. Pike 2621 [OSC], Lawrence H. Pike 2700 [OSC], W.A. Weber s.n. [WIS], COLO-L-0073656 [COLO], more...
[Anaptychia albociliata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia leucomelos f. albociliata (Nyl.) Hue, Anaptychia ophioglossa f. albociliata (Nyl.) Kurok., Heterodermia leucomelaena f. albociliata (Nyl.) D.D. Awasthi, Heterodermia leucomelos f. albociliata (Nyl.) D.D. Awasthi, Physcia leucomelos f. albociliata Nyl.]
[Plagiocarpa illota (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Plagiocarpa langloissi R.C. Harris 1980, Pseudopyrenula illota (Nyl.) Vain., Verrucaria diluta Nyl. nom. illegit.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, F. Bungartz & R. Miranda: Galapagos material of this species erroneously referred to as L. obtectum by Aptroot (2006), source: Aptroot (2006; as Lithothelium obtectum); Bungartz, F. 3690 [CDS]
[Durietzia exornata (Zahlbr.) Yoshim., Lobaria crenulata var. exornata Zahlbr., Lobaria exornata (Zahlbr.) Yoshim., Lobaria exornata var. exornata (Zahlbr.) Yoshim.]
native, indigenous; López, A. 202 [CDS]
[Calopadia epiphylla (Fée) Vězda, Lecanora epiphylla Fée, Loflammia flammea (Müll.Arg.) Vězda, Lopadium flammeum Müll.Arg.]
[Biatorina pulverea (Borrer) Mudd, Catillaria pulverea (Borrer) Lettau, Catillochroma pulverea (Borrer) Kalb, Catinaria pulverea (Borrer) Vězda & Poelt, Lecidea pulverea Borrer, Patellaria pulverea (Borrer) Müll. Arg.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Bungartz et al. (2013c); Bungartz, F. 3964 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64683 [CDS]
[Buellia arthonioides (Fée) Arnold, Catillaria arthonioides (Fée) A. Massal., Melaspilea arthonioides (Fée) Nyl., Poetschia arthonioides (Fée) Stein]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 64717 [CDS]
[Arthonia proximella Nyl., Banhegyia setispora L. Zeller & Tóth., Banhegyia uralensis (Naumov) Kohlm., Buellia proximella (Nyl.) Rabenh., Catillaria proximella (Nyl.) Th. Fr., Celidium proximellum (Nyl.) P. Karst., Celidium proximellum var. proximellum (Nyl.) P. Karst., Celidium proximellum var. uralense Naumov, Coniangium proximellum (Nyl.) Hellb., Melaspilea proximella (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Norrlin]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 64715 [CDS]
[Coniothecium graphideorum (Nyl.) Keissl., Spilomium graphideorum Nyl.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Arthonia, native, indigenous, source: Etayo (2017); Aptroot, A. 63726 B [CDS]
[Acarospora nigroleprosa H. Olivier, Lecanora nigroleprosa Vain., Lecidea liljenstroemii Du Rietz, Lecidea lindstroemii Lynge, Lecidea nigroleprosa (Vain.) H. Magn., Miriquidica liljenstroemii (Du Rietz) R. Sant., Miriquidica nigroleprosa var. liljenstroemii (Du Rietz) Owe-Larss. & Rambold, Miriquidica nigroleprosa var. nigroleprosa (Vain.) Hertel & Rambold]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 65247 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4137 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4142 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4175 [CDS]
preliminary identification, F. Bungartz: material needs verification; Aptroot, A. 65415 [CDS]
[Arthothelium lichenale (Peck) M.E. Barr, Bottaria composita A. Massal., Dermatina pyrenocarpa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Mycoporum pycnocarpum Nyl., Mycoporum pycnocarpum var. ohiense Nyl., Mycoporum pycnocarpum var. pycnocarpum Nyl., Pyrenastrum compositum Hepp]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Nugra, F. 553 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64245 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65311 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65454 [CDS], more...
[Arthopyrenia epidermidis var. lactea (Ach.) A.L. Sm., Mycoporellum hassei Zahlbr., Mycoporellum lacteum (Ach.) Zahlbr., Mycoporellum sparsellum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Mycoporum sparsellum Nyl., Porina bonplandii Müll.Arg., Tomasellia lactea (Ach.) R.C. Harris, Tomasellia sparsella (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria cinerea var. lactea (Ach.) Duby, Verrucaria lactea (Ach.) Eschw., Verrucaria stigmatella var. lactea Ach.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Bungartz, F. 7892 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63805 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 64590 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 4106 [CDS], more...
endemic to Galapagos, Holotype: Aptroot 65667 [CDS 32258], source: Knudsen & Bungartz (2014); Bungartz, F. 4762 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65667 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65671 A [CDS]
[Ocellularia myriopora (Tuck.) Müll.Arg., Thelotrema myrioporum Tuck.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, F. Bungarz: one specimen det. Hale as Myriotrema olivaceum Fée (Santiago, on Zanthoxylum, coll. Pike ID18-19, (OSC 101980) has been revised by R. Lücking to belong to M. myrioporum
[Nitschkiopsis stictarum Nannf. & R. Sant.]
* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens); on Sticta weigelii, native, indigenous, source: Etayo (2017): Islas Galápagos, Isabela, volcán Sierra Negra, Parkplatz ob S. Tomás; kraterrand, 900-1000 m snm, auf S. weigelii, 29-XI-2008, F. Berger 23401 (hb. Berger).
[Bathelium compositum (Vain.) C.W. Dodge, Pseudopyrenula bicincta Zahlbr., Pseudopyrenula composita Vain., Pseudopyrenula deightonii C.W. Dodge, Pseudopyrenula pyrenuloides Zahlbr., Pseudopyrenula tropica (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Pseudopyrenula verrucosa Vain., Pyrenula gaudichaudii (Fée) Pers., Pyrenula tropica (Ach.) Trevis., Sagedia tropica (Ach.) A. Massal., Spermatodium tropicum (Ach.) Trevis., Trypethelium compositum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Trypethelium tropicum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Trypethelium tropicum var. nigratum Müll.Arg., Trypethelium tropicum var. tropicum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Verrucaria gaudichaudii Fée, Verrucaria tropica Ach.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Aptroot et al. (2016), Elix & McCarthy (1998), LeDee (2000), Weber (1986); Weber, W.A. 7 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 63105 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3362 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 3354 [CDS], more...
[Endocarpon pulchellum Borrer, Lauderlindsaya borreri (Leighton) R. Sant., Lenormandia jungermanniae Nyl., Lenormandia pulchella (Borrer) A. Massal., Normandina jungermanniae (Nyl.) Nyl., Normandina jungermanniae var. jungermanniae (Nyl.) Nyl., Normandina jungermanniae var. sorediosa H. Olivier, Polyblastia armericola Walt. Watson, Sphaeria borreri Tul., Verrucaria pulchella Borrer]
[Caloplaca isidiosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Placodium isidiosum Vain.]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous, source: Elix & McCarthy (1998), Weber (1986), Bungartz et al. (2020b); Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Weber, W.A. s.n. [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65644 A [CDS], Ertz, D. 11692 [CDS], more...
[Melanographa leucina Müll. Arg., Melaspilea leucina (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Melaspilea octomera Müll.Arg., Opegrapha alborimosa Zahlbr., Opegrapha alborimosa f. alborimosa Zahlbr., Opegrapha alborimosa f. brevicarpa Redinger, Opegrapha alborimosa f. tenuirimis Redinger, Opegrapha alborimosa var. alborimosa Zahlbr., Opegrapha alborimosa var. candissima Redinger, Opegrapha alborimosa var. globulifica Redinger, Opegrapha alborimosa var. reticulata Redinger, Opegrapha alborimosa var. senescens Redinger, Opegrapha humilis Müll.Arg., Opegrapha interalbata Nyl., Opegrapha interveniens Müll.Arg., Opegrapha leucina Müll.Arg. ex Shirley]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Aptroot, A. 63736 [CDS], Aptroot, A. 65299 [CDS], Ertz, D. 11705 [CDS], Bungartz, F. 9522 [CDS]
so far only reported from the Galapagos, likely to also occur in mainland Ecuador, native, indigenous; Ertz, D. 11524 [CDS], Jonitz, H. 53 [CDS]
native, indigenous;