Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Life habit: lichenicolous, parasitic, non-lichenized Ascomata: aggregated in dense cluster up to 3(-4) mm across, shortly elongate, 0.2-0.5 x 0.1-0.3 mm, straight or curved, with thin slit-like disc, partly immersed to adnate sometimes white pruinose exciple: closed, K+ brown-yellow or brown-red hymenium: hyaline to pale green-yellowish, 100-110 µm tall, I+ persistently blue in upper part; sub-hymenium pale brown, 12-25 µm tall; paraphysoids: 2.5-3 µm wide asci: clavate, 8-spored, 60-65 x 18-20 µm (Variatype) ascospores: ellipsoid to oblong-ovoid, straight, hyaline, soon becoming brownish pigmented in spore wall (Parasitica-type), 3-septate, (18-)20-24(-26) x 6-7(-8) µm, surrounded by a thick gelatinous sheath Pycnidia: immersed conidia: (5-)6-7 x 1 µm, straight. Substrate and ecology: parasitic on the thallus of Dermatocarpon miniatum agg. (Coppins 1987, Orange 1998), also reported on other Verrucariaceae like Endocarpon (e.g. Puntillo 1996) World distribution: Asia, Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: Arizona at 2000-2100 m, Baja California Sur at ca. 1300 m, California at 60 m, Chihuahua at 1340-1350 m and Sonora at 620-1000 m. Notes: The species is characterized by an ascospore wall soon becoming light brown (Coppins 1987) and the occurrence on saxicolous members of the Verrucariales.