Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, 3-8 cm in diam., adnate to loosely adnate, subdichotomously lobate lobes: subirregular, somewhat elongate, initially separate, becoming slightly imbricate, 2-5 mm wide; margin: entire; apices: subtruncate, plane to subconvex upper surface: gray, smooth to shallowly rugulose, becoming cracked with age, dull, often white pruinose, emaculate; isidia, soredia, pustulae and dactyls all absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, somewhat shiny; rhizines: dense, black, dichotomous Apothecia: common, laminal, substipitate, 2-8 mm in diam.; disc: brown; margin: crenulate asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: broadly ellipsoid, 8-10 x 5-7 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, UV-; medulla K+ yellow to red, C-, KC-, P+ red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin, medulla with salazinic acids (major), consalazinic acid (minor) and norstictic acid (trace). Substrate and ecology: on hardwoods in montane oak and pine forests World distribution: neotropics and extending into temperate regions of Chile Sonoran distribution: Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua and Sinaloa.