TYPE. UNITED STATES. FLORIDA, Orange County, Sanford, 1924, S. Rapp s.n., Sandst., Clad. Exs. 1938 (US, holotype)
Description. Lichenized fungus.
Thallus dimorphic. Primary thallus squamulose; squamules 2-5 x 2-3.5 mm, sparsely lobed. Podetia slender to robust, 2-11 cm tall by 0.5-1.5 mm thick, pale gray to brownish, dark brown at base, sparsely branched, producing centrally proliferating cups in 2-16 tiers; internodes 3-14 mm long; cups flaring, shallow, 2-6 mm diam., margins upturned to toothed. Podetial surface corticate, areolate, sometimes squamulose. Photobiont Asterochloris alga. Ascomata biatorine apothecia on cup margins, brown, flat to convex, 1-3 mm diam.; ascospores oblong, 11-12 x 4 μm. Pycnidia on cup margins, 0.2-0.25 diam., globose; pycnidial jelly hyaline; conidia curved, 7-9 x 1 μm.
Chemistry. K- or rarely K+ yellow, PD+ red, rarely PD+ yellow. Three major chemotypes are recognized: (I) psoromic and 2’-O-demethylpsoromic acid; (II) marprotocetraric acid and traces of protocetraric, convirensic (subconstant), and confumarprotocetraric acids; and (III) additional atronorin (rare, in Caribbean).
Substrate and Habitat. On roadbanks, rocks, sandy area and on stumps.
Distribution. Pantropical; in North Carolina in Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont ecoregions.
Ahti, T. (2002) Cladoniaceae. Flora Neotropica 78: 1-362.
Evans, A.W. (1952) Cladoniae of Florida. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Science38: 249-336 (original description).
Pino-Bodas, R. & S. Stenroos. (2021) Global Biodiversity Patterns of the Photobionts Associated with the Genus Cladonia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). Microbial Ecology82: 173–187.