Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: adnate, foliose, 3-9 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: sublinear, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 1-2.5 mm wide; apices: rotund, sometimes lacinate, eciliate upper surface: pale gray to greenish gray, strongly reticulate ridged, rugulose, dull, pruinose at lobe tips and emaculate soredia: farinose, common, laminal, initially in orbicular soralia but becoming confluent; isidia and pustulae absent medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: black; rhizines: sparse, black, simple Apothecia: rare, laminal, substipitate, 1-4 mm wide; disc: brown; margin: usually sorediate, often pruinose ascospores: ellipsoid, 9-13 x 6-9 micro meter Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K + orange, C-, KC-, P+ orange-red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with stictic acid (major), constictic acid (minor), and cryptostictic acid (minor to trace). Substrate and ecology: on trees in open forests World distribution: neotropics from Mexico to Argentina, southern Europe Sonoran distribution: only known from one locality in coastal plain of southern Sonora. Notes: As noted by Hale (1976c) C. carneopruinata and C. crozalsiana tend to intergrade and thus large specimens of the former may not be readily distinguishable from small specimens of the latter.