Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Thallus: chasmolithic, rimose-areolate areoles: 0.2-0.6 mm in diam., c. 0.3 mm thick upper surface: white or pale brown, ecorticate medulla: white, obscure in water and K, mixed with granules of the substrate, with highly gelatinized hyphae algal layer: uneven to absent, sometimes thickening in areole beneath apothecium Apothecia: 1-3 per areole, 0.2-0.7 mm wide, sessile, emergent from areole, with an evanescent pseudo-thalline margin of white medullary plectenchyma disc: smoky yellow-brown, same color as outer layer of parathecium, uneven, immersed, less than c. 0.5 µm wide, round to elongate, pruinose margin: brown, prominent, usually with deep splits, pruinose true exciple: 50-110 µm thick, with radiating hyphae, externally richly yellow-brown, internally hyaline epihymenium: smoky yellow-brown, conglutinate, 10-15 µm thick hymenium: hyaline, 80-120 µm tall, in gel; paraphyses: conglutinate, basally 1-1.7 µm wide, apically up to 3 µm wide, with a gel cap subhymenium: hyaline, indistinct, c.10 µm thick hypothecium: hyaline, c. 20 µm thick asci: clavate, 50-100 x 10-25 µm, 100+-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 3-4 x 1.7-2(-3) µm with well-developed perispore or mucilage sheath (few mature spores seen and widest measurement includes outer wall or limit of sheath) Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: exciple K+ yellow with or without crystals, or K-; P+ yellow-orange or P- Secondary metabolites: +norstictic acid Substrate and ecology: on sandstone World distribution: western North America (Colorado to Utah and Arizona) Sonoran distribution: Arizona. Notes: Only five specimens were seen, the best being a Weber collection from Colorado (MIC) and a Bratt collection from Colorado (SBBG). The holotype from Utah is of very poor quality with only a few fertile areoles (UPS!) but the isotype (MIN!) is in excellent condition and contains norstictic acid. Despite difference in chemistry with Magnusson's report, the morphology is distinct in all specimens seen.