Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: squamulose, often in patches of multiple squamules several cm wide squamules: 2-6 (-10) mm diam., round, concave or rarely convex upper surface: brown-olive, smooth and shiny, not sorediate upper cortex: not developed but with a yellowish epinecral layer (30-45 µm thick) medulla: composed of loosely interwoven hyphae; algal layer: 75-105 µm thick lower cortex: absent or only poorly developed (2-3 rows of globose cells) lower surface: paler than the upper surface, attached centrally by large rhizines Apothecia: one per squamule (very rarely 2-3), immersed; disc: expanded, 0.5-3 (-5) mm in diam., red to yellow-brown; epihymenium: yellow-brown, K+ red-violet; hymenium: I+ wine-red, 165-170 µm high, >100-spored ascospores: globose, 6.6-8.3 µm diam. Pycnidia: no data available conidia: fusiform, 3.1-3.7 x 1.2 µm Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on soil with high calcium levels, particularly in places particularly in places where water runs across the surface during heavy storms World distribution: SW North America to central Mexico Sonoran distribution: desert areas of Arizona, southern California, Sonora, Baja California and Baja California Sur.