Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Apothecia: orbicular, sessile, 0.25-0.35(-0.8) mm diam. disc: black, convex margin: absent exciple: not developed epihymenium: brown, covered by a layer of colorless gel hymenium: colorless to brown, c. 50 µm tall paraphyses: scarcely branched and anastomosed, 3-4.5 µm wide; apical cells distinctly thickened, 5.5-9 µm wide, with small, brown to dark brown pigmented caps hypothecium: colorless to pale brown, with I+ violet hyphae of the subhypothecial zone asci: broadly clavate, 35-40 x 15-20 µm, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid to ovoid, with obtuse ends, 13-15(-16) x 5-7 µm nidia: globular, immersed conidia: bacilliform, straight to slightly curved, 7-9 x 1.8 µm. Hosts: on thallus of Letharia vulpina and L. columbiana World distribution: Europe, northern Africa, and North America Sonoran distribution: unknown, but collected just outside of this region in adjacent California.